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Viral diseases

Section edited by Jodie McVernon and Julian Tang

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    The differential diagnosis of Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO) is very extensive, and includes infectious diseases (ID), neoplasms and noninfectious inflammatory diseases (NIID). Many FUO remain undiagnosed. Fact...

    Authors: Francesco Maria Fusco, Raffaella Pisapia, Salvatore Nardiello, Stefano Domenico Cicala, Giovanni Battista Gaeta and Giuseppina Brancaccio

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:653

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Congenital Cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the most common cause of non-genetic hearing loss in childhood. A newborn hearing screening program (NHSP) is currently running in Italy, but no universal cCMV nor statewid...

    Authors: Laura Pellegrinelli, Cristina Galli, Valeria Primache, Mirko Alde’, Enrico Fagnani, Federica Di Berardino, Diego Zanetti, Elena Pariani, Umberto Ambrosetti and Sandro Binda

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:652

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  3. Content type: Technical advance

    Despite the greater sensitivity of the new dengue clinical classification proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2009, there is a need for a better definition of warning signs and clinical progress...

    Authors: Gleicy Macedo Hair, Flávio Fonseca Nobre and Patrícia Brasil

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:649

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Lassa fever virus has been enlisted as a priority pathogen of epidemic potential by the World Health organization Research and Development (WHO R & D) Blueprint. Diagnostics play a crucial role in epidemic pre...

    Authors: Noah Fongwen Takah, Polina Brangel, Priyanka Shrestha and Rosanna Peeling

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:647

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in children is an important public health problem in China. We performed the current study to explore the seroprevalence of VZV infection in Chinese children in order to ...

    Authors: Lin Luan, Xiaochen Shen, Jing Qiu, Yang Jing, Jingqi Zhang, Jie Wang, Jun Zhang and Chen Dong

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:643

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria are often used to evaluate the risk of sepsis and to identify in-hospital mortality among patients with suspected infection. However, utilization of the ...

    Authors: Henry Chih-Hung Tai, Chien-Chun Yeh, Yen-An Chen, Chien-Chin Hsu, Jiann-Hwa Chen, Wei-Lung Chen, Chien-Cheng Huang and Jui-Yuan Chung

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:639

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  7. Content type: Case report

    Visceral disseminated varicella zoster virus (VDVZV) infection is a rare disease with a high mortality rate (55%) in immunocompromised patients, but it is not yet widely recognized in the field of nephrology. ...

    Authors: Yoshitaka Furuto, Mariko Kawamura, Akio Namikawa, Hiroko Takahashi and Yuko Shibuya

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:625

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Two outbreaks of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) occurred successively with an interval of 5 days in two primary boarding schools in Weixi Lisu Autonomous County, Diqing, and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture,...

    Authors: Duo Li, Jie-Nan Zhou, Hong Li, Cun-Ying He, Qing-Shan Dai, Xiang-Lan Li, Jian-Fang He, Hong He, Ming-Bao Li, L I-Li Jiang, Yao-Yao Chen and Wen Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:624

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Cell-surface mucins are expressed in apical epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, and contribute a crucial part of the innate immune system. Despite anti-inflammatory or antiviral functions being revealed...

    Authors: Zhuang Gui Chen, Zhao Ni Wang, Yan Yan, Jing Liu, Ting Ting He, Kim Thye Thong, Yew Kwang Ong, Vincent T. K. Chow, Kai Sen Tan and De Yun Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:622

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  10. Content type: Research article

    The Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) A genotype ON1, which was first detected in Ontario (Canada) in 2010/11, appeared in Germany in 2011/12. Preliminary observations suggested a higher clinical severity in c...

    Authors: Andrea Streng, David Goettler, Miriam Haerlein, Lisa Lehmann, Kristina Ulrich, Christiane Prifert, Christine Krempl, Benedikt Weißbrich and Johannes G. Liese

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:613

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  11. Content type: Case report

    Lassa fever (LF) is a viral hemorrhagic disease caused by the Lassa virus (LASV) and endemic in West African countries with an estimation of 300,000 to 500,000 cases and 5,000 deaths annually. The Margibi Coun...

    Authors: Abyot Bekele Woyessa, Leroy Maximore, Darius Keller, John Dogba, Myer Pajibo, Kumblytee Johnson, Emmanuel Saydee, Julius Monday, Roland Tuopileyi II and Nuha Mahmoud

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:610

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  12. Content type: Case report

    Infectious disease prevention and control strategies require a coordinated, transnational approach. To establish core capacities of the International Health Regulations (IHR), the World Health Organization (WH...

    Authors: Mory Keïta, Georges Alfred Kizerbo, Lorenzo Subissi, Fodé Amara Traoré, Ahmadou Doré, Mohamed Fode Camara, Ahmadou Barry, Raymond Pallawo, Mamadou Oury Baldé, Nfaly Magassouba, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey and Ibrahima Socé Fall

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:606

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks in settings globally. Studies have shown that employees played an important role in the transmission mode during some N...

    Authors: Qiang-song Wu, Ze-liang Xuan, Jing-yi Liu, Xue-tao Zhao, Yuan-fang Chen, Chen-xi Wang, Xiao-ting Shen, Ya-xin Wang, Lan Wang and Yi Hu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:592

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  14. Content type: Case report

    We report a rare case of Toscana virus infection imported into Switzerland in a 23-year old man who travelled to Imperia (Italy) 10 days before onset of symptoms. Symptoms included both meningitis and as well ...

    Authors: Fabian Tschumi, Stefan Schmutz, Verena Kufner, Maike Heider, Fiona Pigny, Bettina Schreiner, Riccarda Capaul, Yvonne Achermann and Michael Huber

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:591

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Transfusion-Transmitted Zika virus (TT-ZIKV) has become an emerging threat to world blood banks due to the fast spread of ZIKV epidemics and high rate of asymptomatic infections. For the risk assessment of ZIK...

    Authors: Rongfei Liu, Xuanzhuo Wang, Yu Ma, Jianyong Wu, Chen Mao, Lihong Yuan and Jiahai Lu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:590

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Acute undifferentiated febrile illness (AUFI) is caused by a multitude of diverse pathogens, with significant morbidity and mortality in the developing world. The objective of this review was to characterise t...

    Authors: Kinley Wangdi, Kaushalya Kasturiaratchi, Susana Vaz Nery, Colleen L. Lau, Darren J. Gray and Archie C. A. Clements

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:577

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  17. Content type: Research article

    We conducted a diagnostic surveillance study to identify Plasmodium, dengue virus, chikungunya virus, and Orientia tsutsugamushi infections among febrile patients who underwent triage for malaria in the outpatien...

    Authors: Pavitra N. Rao, Anna Maria van Eijk, Sandhya Choubey, Syed Zeeshan Ali, Aditee Dash, Punam Barla, Rajshri Rani Oraon, Gautam Patel, P. Nandini, Subrata Acharya, Sanjib Mohanty, Jane M. Carlton and Sanghamitra Satpathi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:572

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  18. Content type: Debate

    Hepatitis E is a liver disease caused by a small RNA virus known as hepatitis E virus (HEV). Four major genotypes infect humans, of which genotype 1 and 2 (HEV-1, HEV-2) are endemic mainly in Asia and responsi...

    Authors: Joachim Denner, Sven Pischke, Eike Steinmann, Johannes Blümel and Dieter Glebe

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:541

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Hantaviruses are important zoonotic pathogens, and they pose a profound risk to public health. So far, there has been no evidence showing that Tula virus (TULV), one species of hantavirus, is endemic in China....

    Authors: Gang Guo, Baoping Guo, Xiran Wu, Yuanzhi Wang, Jianling Bao, Yuan Ren, Hongyu Li, Jun Li, Wenbao Zhang and Hua Yao

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:527

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) have increasingly been observed in Miyazaki, southwest Japan. It is critical to identify and elucidate the risk factors of infection at community lev...

    Authors: Kazuhiro Yasuo and Hiroshi Nishiura

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:498

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Dengue is becoming a major public health concern in Guangdong (GD) Province of China. The problem was highlighted in 2014 by an unprecedented explosive outbreak, where the number of cases was larger than the t...

    Authors: Guanghu Zhu, Jianpeng Xiao, Tao Liu, Bing Zhang, Yuantao Hao and Wenjun Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:493

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  22. Content type: Case report

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by an excessive systemic inflammatory response, which can be classified as primary HLH (pHLH) and secondary HLH (sHLH). Viru...

    Authors: Xiaoling Yang, Chuan Wang, Libo Wu, Xiaoqian Jiang, Sumei Zhang and Fuchun Jing

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:492

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  23. Content type: Software

    The increasing availability of high-throughput sequencing data provides researchers with unprecedented opportunities to investigate viral genetic elements in host genomes that contribute to virus-linked cancer...

    Authors: Bingqing Yan, Xinyi Liu, Siwei Zhang, Siyang Yu, Fangjia Tong, Huanhuan Xie, Lianhao Song, Yan Zhang and Lanlan Wei

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:479

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a newly identified severe infectious disease caused by SFTS phlebovirus (SFTSV). SFTS monitoring has been carried out since 2010 in mainland China. We anal...

    Authors: Xiaoxia Huang, Shujun Ding, Xiaolin Jiang, Bo Pang, Quanfu Zhang, Chuan Li, Aqian Li, Jiandong Li, Mifang Liang, Shiwen Wang and Dexin Li

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:476

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CV-B3) is usually associated with aseptic meningitis and myocarditis; however, the association between CV-B3 and hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has not been clearly demonstrated, and t...

    Authors: Zhenzhi Han, Yong Zhang, Keqiang Huang, Jianxing Wang, Huifang Tian, Yang Song, Qian Yang, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Mingxiao Yao, Xianjun Wang and Wenbo Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:466

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Studies have shown that the human T-lymphotropic virus 2 (HTLV-2) is endemic in several indigenous populations of the Brazilian Amazon and molecular analyses have shown the exclusive presence of HTLV-2 subtype...

    Authors: Isabel Luís Jocene Braço, Keyla Santos Guedes de Sá, Mishelle Waqasi, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Andréa Nazaré Rangel da Silva, Izaura M. V. Cayres-Vallinoto, Sandra Souza Lima, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak, João Farias Guerreiro and Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:459

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Since 2008, avian influenza surveillance in poultry-related environments has been conducted annually in China. Samples have been collected from environments including live poultry markets, wild bird habitats, ...

    Authors: Ye Zhang, Jie Dong, Hong Bo, Libo Dong, Shumei Zou, Xiyan Li, Yuelong Shu and Dayan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:458

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a causal agent of acute respiratory infection, especially in primarily children. At the clinical level, HMPV is associated to several diseases including bronchitis, croup, pneum...

    Authors: Mamadou Malado Jallow, Amary Fall, Davy Kiori, Sara Sy, Déborah Goudiaby, Mamadou Aliou Barry, Malick Fall, Mbayame Ndiaye Niang and Ndongo Dia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:457

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major public health problem in Nepal. This study was conducted to obtain information associated with Rotavirus gastroenteritis and to perform genotyping of Rotavirus A.

    Authors: Sony Shrestha, Ocean Thakali, Sunayana Raya, Laxman Shrestha, Keshab Parajuli and Jeevan Bahadhur Sherchand

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:456

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  30. Content type: Research article

    São José do Rio Preto is one of the cities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, that is hyperendemic for dengue, with the presence of the four dengue serotypes.

    Authors: Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto, Rafael Alves da Silva, Nathalia Zini, Gislaine Celestino Dutra da Silva, Natal Santos da Silva, Maisa Carla Pereira Parra, Margareth Regina Dibo, Cassia Fernanda Estofolete, Eliane Aparecida Fávaro, Karina Rocha Dutra, Manlio Tasso Oliveira Mota, Georgia Freitas Guimarães, Ana Carolina Bernardes Terzian, Marta Blangiardo and Mauricio Lacerda Nogueira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:441

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Over the past decades there have been outbreaks of mumps in many countries, even in populations that were vaccinated. Some studies suggest that the incidence of mumps is related to meteorological changes, but ...

    Authors: Yu Hao, Ran-ran Wang, Ling Han, Hong Wang, Xuan Zhang, Qiao-ling Tang, Long Yan and Juan He

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:435

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune system and provide surveillance against viruses and cancers. The ability of NK cells to kill virus-infected cells depends on the balance between the effects...

    Authors: Gabriel Andrade Nonato Queiroz, Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas, Vincent Vieillard, Raphaela Lisboa Andrade, Bernardo Galvão-Castro and Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:433

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Despite the undeniable significance of blood transfusion in saving a millions life in emergencies and medical treatment, the quality of blood faced challenges from transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) suc...

    Authors: Markos Negash, Moges Ayalew, Demeke Geremew and Meseret Workineh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:430

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  34. Content type: Research article

    The global expansion of dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), and Zika viruses (ZIKV) is having a serious impact on public health. Because these arboviruses are transmitted by the same mosquito species and co-ci...

    Authors: Lyudmyla G. Glushakova, Barry W. Alto, Myong-Sang Kim, Daniel Hutter, Andrea Bradley, Kevin M. Bradley, Nathan D. Burkett-Cadena and Steven A. Benner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:418

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network is an international platform whose primary objective is to study severe cases of influenza requiring hospitalization.

    Authors: Joan Puig-Barberà, Ainara Mira-Iglesias, Elena Burtseva, Benjamin J. Cowling, Unal Serhat, Guillermo Miguel Ruiz-Palacios, Odile Launay, Jan Kyncl, Parvaiz Koul, Marilda M. Siqueira and Anna Sominina

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:415

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  36. Content type: Case report

    Symptomatic primary Epstein-Barr virus infection is a usually self-limiting illness in adolescents. We present a case of an adolescent who had been receiving azathioprine for inflammatory bowel disease for fou...

    Authors: Minna Honkila, Riitta Niinimäki, Mervi Taskinen, Outi Kuismin, Kaisa Kettunen, Janna Saarela, Sami Turunen, Marjo Renko and Terhi Tapiainen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:404

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Older adults are vulnerable to hospitalization or death from norovirus infection, but the actual disease burden remains unknown. Therefore, we conducted a nationwide survey to estimate the number of inpatients...

    Authors: Satoko Ohfuji, Kyoko Kondo, Kazuya Ito, Tetsuo Kase, Akiko Maeda, Wakaba Fukushima, Taisei Masuda and Munehide Kano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:400

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  38. Content type: Case report

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare, potentially fatal disease with multisystem involvement. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection as a cause of refractory TTP, has been reported only in immunocompro...

    Authors: Medhini Boteju, Praveen Weeratunga, Ahalyaa Sivashangar and Thashi Chang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:394

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  39. Content type: Research article

    In Lao PDR, the epidemiology of varicella infection is uncertain, since it is not a notifiable disease and VZV outbreaks are rarely reported as fever/rash (F/R) diseases.

    Authors: Phonethipsavanh Nouanthong, Judith M. Hübschen, Somxay Billamay, Sodaly Mongkhoune, Keooudomphone Vilivong, Vilaysone Khounvisith, Regina Sinner, Marc Grandadam, Darouny Phonekeo, Antony P. Black and Claude P. Muller

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:392

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  40. Content type: Case report

    The compound letermovir (LMV) has recently been approved for the prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease in adult CMV seropositive recipients of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transpl...

    Authors: Susanne Jung, Manuela Michel, Thomas Stamminger and Detlef Michel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:388

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Management of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has historically focused on infection prevention, case detection and supportive care. Several specific anti-Ebola therapies have been investigated, including during the ...

    Authors: James S. Lee, Neill K. J. Adhikari, Henry Y. Kwon, Koren Teo, Reed Siemieniuk, François Lamontagne, Adrienne Chan, Sharmistha Mishra, Srinivas Murthy, Peter Kiiza, Jan Hajek, Elhadj I. Bah, Marie-Claire Lamah, Raymond Kao and Robert A. Fowler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:376

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  42. Content type: Research article

    This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) in external anogenital warts, and the correlation with clinical presentation of warts and demographic data of...

    Authors: Rana Al-Awadhi, Nawaf Al-Mutairi, Ahmed N. Albatineh and Wassim Chehadeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:375

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Several inactivated enterovirus-A71 (EV-A71) vaccines are currently licensed in China; however, the development of additional EV-A71 vaccines is ongoing, necessitating extensive analysis of the molecular epide...

    Authors: Lea Necitas Apostol, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Akira Suzuki, Rifqiyah Nur Umami, Maria Melissa Ann Jiao, Amado Tandoc III, Mariko Saito, Socorro Lupisan and Hitoshi Oshitani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:370

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  44. Content type: Research article

    Varicella during pregnancy can lead to serious maternal and fetal consequences. Although an effective vaccine is available it is not incorporated in to the routine vaccination programs in most of the Asian cou...

    Authors: Ishara P. Premathilake, Praveena Aluthbaduge, Channa P. Senanayake, Renuka Jayalatharachchi, Sirithilak Gamage and Jude Jayamaha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:356

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is considered to be responsible for a new viral epidemic and an emergent threat to global health security. This study describes the current epidemiologic...

    Authors: Kazhal Mobaraki and Jamal Ahmadzadeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:351

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  46. Content type: Research article

    Measles is one of the most contagious diseases caused by an acute viral illness called Morbillivirus that usually occurs as an outbreak in low-income countries. As of May 2016 measles suspected outbreak was re...

    Authors: Abadi Girmay and Abel Fekadu Dadi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:345

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