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Viral diseases

Section edited by Jodie McVernon and Julian Tang

This section aims to publish studies looking at all aspects of of the prevention, diagnosis and management of viral diseases in humans, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology. HIV, HIV-associated infections and sexually transmitted diseases are considered in separate sections.

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  1. Content type: Research article

    Studies have shown that the human T-lymphotropic virus 2 (HTLV-2) is endemic in several indigenous populations of the Brazilian Amazon and molecular analyses have shown the exclusive presence of HTLV-2 subtype...

    Authors: Isabel Luís Jocene Braço, Keyla Santos Guedes de Sá, Mishelle Waqasi, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Andréa Nazaré Rangel da Silva, Izaura M. V. Cayres-Vallinoto, Sandra Souza Lima, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak, Ricardo Ishak, João Farias Guerreiro and Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:459

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Since 2008, avian influenza surveillance in poultry-related environments has been conducted annually in China. Samples have been collected from environments including live poultry markets, wild bird habitats, ...

    Authors: Ye Zhang, Jie Dong, Hong Bo, Libo Dong, Shumei Zou, Xiyan Li, Yuelong Shu and Dayan Wang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:458

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a causal agent of acute respiratory infection, especially in primarily children. At the clinical level, HMPV is associated to several diseases including bronchitis, croup, pneum...

    Authors: Mamadou Malado Jallow, Amary Fall, Davy Kiori, Sara Sy, Déborah Goudiaby, Mamadou Aliou Barry, Malick Fall, Mbayame Ndiaye Niang and Ndongo Dia

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:457

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major public health problem in Nepal. This study was conducted to obtain information associated with Rotavirus gastroenteritis and to perform genotyping of Rotavirus A.

    Authors: Sony Shrestha, Ocean Thakali, Sunayana Raya, Laxman Shrestha, Keshab Parajuli and Jeevan Bahadhur Sherchand

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:456

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  5. Content type: Research article

    São José do Rio Preto is one of the cities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, that is hyperendemic for dengue, with the presence of the four dengue serotypes.

    Authors: Francisco Chiaravalloti-Neto, Rafael Alves da Silva, Nathalia Zini, Gislaine Celestino Dutra da Silva, Natal Santos da Silva, Maisa Carla Pereira Parra, Margareth Regina Dibo, Cassia Fernanda Estofolete, Eliane Aparecida Fávaro, Karina Rocha Dutra, Manlio Tasso Oliveira Mota, Georgia Freitas Guimarães, Ana Carolina Bernardes Terzian, Marta Blangiardo and Mauricio Lacerda Nogueira

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:441

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Over the past decades there have been outbreaks of mumps in many countries, even in populations that were vaccinated. Some studies suggest that the incidence of mumps is related to meteorological changes, but ...

    Authors: Yu Hao, Ran-ran Wang, Ling Han, Hong Wang, Xuan Zhang, Qiao-ling Tang, Long Yan and Juan He

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:435

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune system and provide surveillance against viruses and cancers. The ability of NK cells to kill virus-infected cells depends on the balance between the effects...

    Authors: Gabriel Andrade Nonato Queiroz, Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas, Vincent Vieillard, Raphaela Lisboa Andrade, Bernardo Galvão-Castro and Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:433

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Despite the undeniable significance of blood transfusion in saving a millions life in emergencies and medical treatment, the quality of blood faced challenges from transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) suc...

    Authors: Markos Negash, Moges Ayalew, Demeke Geremew and Meseret Workineh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:430

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The global expansion of dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), and Zika viruses (ZIKV) is having a serious impact on public health. Because these arboviruses are transmitted by the same mosquito species and co-ci...

    Authors: Lyudmyla G. Glushakova, Barry W. Alto, Myong-Sang Kim, Daniel Hutter, Andrea Bradley, Kevin M. Bradley, Nathan D. Burkett-Cadena and Steven A. Benner

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:418

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  10. Content type: Research article

    The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network is an international platform whose primary objective is to study severe cases of influenza requiring hospitalization.

    Authors: Joan Puig-Barberà, Ainara Mira-Iglesias, Elena Burtseva, Benjamin J. Cowling, Unal Serhat, Guillermo Miguel Ruiz-Palacios, Odile Launay, Jan Kyncl, Parvaiz Koul, Marilda M. Siqueira and Anna Sominina

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:415

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  11. Content type: Case report

    Symptomatic primary Epstein-Barr virus infection is a usually self-limiting illness in adolescents. We present a case of an adolescent who had been receiving azathioprine for inflammatory bowel disease for fou...

    Authors: Minna Honkila, Riitta Niinimäki, Mervi Taskinen, Outi Kuismin, Kaisa Kettunen, Janna Saarela, Sami Turunen, Marjo Renko and Terhi Tapiainen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:404

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Older adults are vulnerable to hospitalization or death from norovirus infection, but the actual disease burden remains unknown. Therefore, we conducted a nationwide survey to estimate the number of inpatients...

    Authors: Satoko Ohfuji, Kyoko Kondo, Kazuya Ito, Tetsuo Kase, Akiko Maeda, Wakaba Fukushima, Taisei Masuda and Munehide Kano

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:400

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  13. Content type: Case report

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare, potentially fatal disease with multisystem involvement. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection as a cause of refractory TTP, has been reported only in immunocompro...

    Authors: Medhini Boteju, Praveen Weeratunga, Ahalyaa Sivashangar and Thashi Chang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:394

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  14. Content type: Research article

    In Lao PDR, the epidemiology of varicella infection is uncertain, since it is not a notifiable disease and VZV outbreaks are rarely reported as fever/rash (F/R) diseases.

    Authors: Phonethipsavanh Nouanthong, Judith M. Hübschen, Somxay Billamay, Sodaly Mongkhoune, Keooudomphone Vilivong, Vilaysone Khounvisith, Regina Sinner, Marc Grandadam, Darouny Phonekeo, Antony P. Black and Claude P. Muller

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:392

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  15. Content type: Case report

    The compound letermovir (LMV) has recently been approved for the prophylaxis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease in adult CMV seropositive recipients of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transpl...

    Authors: Susanne Jung, Manuela Michel, Thomas Stamminger and Detlef Michel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:388

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Management of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has historically focused on infection prevention, case detection and supportive care. Several specific anti-Ebola therapies have been investigated, including during the ...

    Authors: James S. Lee, Neill K. J. Adhikari, Henry Y. Kwon, Koren Teo, Reed Siemieniuk, François Lamontagne, Adrienne Chan, Sharmistha Mishra, Srinivas Murthy, Peter Kiiza, Jan Hajek, Elhadj I. Bah, Marie-Claire Lamah, Raymond Kao and Robert A. Fowler

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:376

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  17. Content type: Research article

    This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) in external anogenital warts, and the correlation with clinical presentation of warts and demographic data of...

    Authors: Rana Al-Awadhi, Nawaf Al-Mutairi, Ahmed N. Albatineh and Wassim Chehadeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:375

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Several inactivated enterovirus-A71 (EV-A71) vaccines are currently licensed in China; however, the development of additional EV-A71 vaccines is ongoing, necessitating extensive analysis of the molecular epide...

    Authors: Lea Necitas Apostol, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Akira Suzuki, Rifqiyah Nur Umami, Maria Melissa Ann Jiao, Amado Tandoc III, Mariko Saito, Socorro Lupisan and Hitoshi Oshitani

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:370

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Varicella during pregnancy can lead to serious maternal and fetal consequences. Although an effective vaccine is available it is not incorporated in to the routine vaccination programs in most of the Asian cou...

    Authors: Ishara P. Premathilake, Praveena Aluthbaduge, Channa P. Senanayake, Renuka Jayalatharachchi, Sirithilak Gamage and Jude Jayamaha

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:356

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is considered to be responsible for a new viral epidemic and an emergent threat to global health security. This study describes the current epidemiologic...

    Authors: Kazhal Mobaraki and Jamal Ahmadzadeh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:351

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Measles is one of the most contagious diseases caused by an acute viral illness called Morbillivirus that usually occurs as an outbreak in low-income countries. As of May 2016 measles suspected outbreak was re...

    Authors: Abadi Girmay and Abel Fekadu Dadi

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:345

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  22. Content type: Case report

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis is an infectious inflammatory disease of brain that can cause irreversible mental damage without timely treatment. In fact, many viruses can cause encephalitis, and th...

    Authors: Yu-xin Song, Ye Li, Yong-mei Jiang and Ting Liu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:342

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Zika virus is associated with increased cases of both microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Community knowledge, perceptions and practices to prevent infection with the Zika virus are not well understood, ...

    Authors: Erik J. Nelson, Maya C. Luetke, Sina Kianersi, Erik Willis and Molly Rosenberg

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:339

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  24. Content type: Research article

    A severe dengue epidemic occurred in 2015 which resulted in over 22,000 laboratory-confirmed cases. A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was conducted during the ending phase of this epidemic to evaluate the...

    Authors: Yu-Wen Chien, Hsiang-Min Huang, Tzu-Chuan Ho, Fan-Chen Tseng, Nai-Ying Ko, Wen-Chien Ko and Guey Chuen Perng

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:338

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Rabies remains a major public health problem in developing countries. Most fatal rabies cases, especially in children, result from dog bites and occur in low-income countries, such as those in Sub-Saharan Afri...

    Authors: Mamadou Korka Diallo, Alpha Oumar Diallo, Anta Dicko, Vincent Richard and Emmanuelle Espié

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:321

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Influenza surveillance is necessary for detection of emerging variants of epidemiologic and clinical significance. This study describes the epidemiology of influenza types A and B, and molecular characteristic...

    Authors: Hebah A. Al Khatib, Asmaa A. Al Thani, Imed Gallouzi and Hadi M. Yassine

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:314

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Despite World Health Organization recommendations, in many countries young children are not targeted for influenza vaccination. To help inform influenza vaccination policy, we examined the occurrence and burde...

    Authors: Clotilde El Guerche-Séblain, Annick Moureau, Camille Schiffler, Martin Dupuy, Stephanie Pepin, Sandrine I. Samson, Philippe Vanhems and François Schellevis

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:308

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Although real-life results of sofosbuvir/simeprevir have been extensively reported from the United States, data from other geographical areas are limited. In the French observational cohort, ANRS CO22 HEPATHER...

    Authors: Anne Laurain, Sophie Metivier, Georges Haour, Dominique Larrey, Céline Dorival, Christophe Hezode, Fabien Zoulim, Patrick Marcellin, Marc Bourliere, Jean-Pierre Zarski, Dominique Thabut, Laurent Alric, Nathalie Ganne-Carrie, Paul Cales, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Ghassan Riachi…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:300

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is widespread in cattle globally and is present in marketed beef and dairy products. Human infection with BLV has been reported in breast and lung cancer tissues and was s...

    Authors: Gertrude C. Buehring, Anne DeLaney, HuaMin Shen, David L. Chu, Niema Razavian, Daniel A. Schwartz, Zach R. Demkovich and Michael N. Bates

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:297

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Dengue infections have become a huge threat to public health systems in developing countries. Data on seroprevalence and incidence of dengue infections are lacking from rural regions of India. The objective of...

    Authors: Paresh S. Shah, Kalichamy Alagarasu, Shivaji Karad, Avinash Deoshatwar, Santosh M. Jadhav, Tushar Raut, Anand Singh, Cecilia Dayaraj and Vasant S. Padbidri

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:296

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a transmissible infectious disease caused by human enteroviruses (EV). Here, we described features of children with severe HFMD caused by EV-A71 or coxsackievirus A16 (CV...

    Authors: Kang Cai, Yizhong Wang, Zhongqin Guo, Huiju Yu, Huajun Li, Liya Zhang, Shanshan Xu and Qingli Zhang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:285

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  32. Content type: Research article

    We aim to investigate possible maternal- and pregnancy-related factors associated with the development of Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) in children of mothers with probable gestational infection.

    Authors: Giulia P. Lima, Daniel Rozenbaum, Clarisse Pimentel, Ana Cristina Cisne Frota, Daniela Vivacqua, Elizabeth S. Machado, Fernanda Sztajnbok, Thalita Abreu, Raquel A. Soares and Cristina B. Hofer

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:277

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The goal of this research is to create a system that can use the available relevant information about the factors responsible for the spread of dengue and; use it to predict the occurrence of dengue within a g...

    Authors: Raghvendra Jain, Sra Sontisirikit, Sopon Iamsirithaworn and Helmut Prendinger

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:272

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Rubella is a vaccine-preventable contagious disease causing an estimated 100,000 children to be born with congenital rubella syndrome each year globally. Studies documented that 18 rubella outbreaks were occur...

    Authors: Getachew Dinede, Abigiya Wondimagegnehu and Fikre Enquselassie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:267

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  35. Content type: Case report

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging viral infectious disease with high mortality. It causes multiple organ dysfunction; however, myocarditis has never been reported as a complicat...

    Authors: Shotaro Miyamoto, Takashi Ito, Shinsaku Terada, Tomohiro Eguchi, Hiroaki Furubeppu, Hideki Kawamura, Tomotsugu Yasuda and Yasuyuki Kakihana

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:266

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  36. Content type: Case report

    We report hereby a severe case of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome” (HPS) induced by Maripa virus in French Guiana and describe the mechanism of severity of the human disease.

    Authors: Hatem Kallel, Séverine Matheus, Claire Mayence, Stéphanie Houcke, Cyrille Mathien, Anne Lavergne and Didier Hommel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:260

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Despite the high number of chikungunya cases in Indonesia in recent years, comprehensive epidemiological data are lacking. The systematic review was undertaken to provide data on incidence, the seroprevalence ...

    Authors: Harapan Harapan, Alice Michie, Mudatsir Mudatsir, Roy Nusa, Benediktus Yohan, Abram Luther Wagner, R. Tedjo Sasmono and Allison Imrie

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:243

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Although Indonesia has high fatality rate of human A/H5N1 cases, epidemiological and clinical data on influenza virus circulation among humans has been limited. Within Indonesia, Bali province is of interest d...

    Authors: Wiku Adisasmito, Sri Budayanti, Dewi Nur Aisyah, Richard Coker, Ayu Rai Andayani, Gavin J. D. Smith and James W. Rudge

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:231

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the major public health problem worldwide. In clinical practice, serological and molecular assays are the most commonly used diagnostic methods to detect HBV infection in c...

    Authors: Xin-xin Shen, Fang-zhou Qiu, Li-Ping Shen, Ten-fei Yan, Meng-chuan Zhao, Ju-Ju Qi, Chen Chen, Li Zhao, Le Wang, Zhi-shan Feng and Xue-jun Ma

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:229

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  40. Content type: Case report

    Total four influenza pandemics have happened since twentieth century, and currently influenza is in the seasonal epidemic around the world, with a sharp increase in its incidence each year. As an effective tre...

    Authors: Ruochan Chen, Zhixiong Fang and Yan Huang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:224

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne viral disease now identified in over 60 countries in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has spread in the last 15 years to many countries, causi...

    Authors: Femke W. Overbosch, Floor Elfrink, Janke Schinkel and Gerard J. B. Sonder

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:196

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  42. Content type: Research article

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can progress to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease in a substantial proportion of patients. The infection is frequently asymptomatic, leaving many infected individu...

    Authors: H. Kileng, T. Gutteberg, R. Goll and E. J. Paulssen

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:189

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Detecting the onset of influenza epidemic is important for epidemiological surveillance and for investigating the factors driving spatiotemporal transmission patterns. Most approaches define the epidemic onset...

    Authors: Jun Cai, Bing Zhang, Bo Xu, Karen Kie Yan Chan, Gerardo Chowell, Huaiyu Tian and Bing Xu

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:181

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  44. Content type: Research article

    The emergence of norovirus genotype GII.4 variants has been associated with gastroenteritis pandemics worldwide, prompting molecular surveillance for early detection of novel strains. In this study, we aimed t...

    Authors: Maria E. Hasing, Bonita E. Lee, Yuanyuan Qiu, Ming Xia, Kanti Pabbaraju, Anita Wong, Graham Tipples, Xi Jiang and Xiaoli L. Pang

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:177

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is emerging in Asian 3 countries, China, Japan and Korea, which are scrub typhus endemic areas, and its incidence is increasing. As the two infections overlap...

    Authors: Sang-Won Park, Chang-Seop Lee, Jeong-Han Kim, In-Gyu Bae, Chisook Moon, Yee Gyung Kwak, Baek-Nam Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Seong Yeol Ryu, Hee-Chang Jang, Jian Hur, Jae-Bum Jun, Younghee Jung, Hyun-Ha Chang, Young Keun Kim, Jeong-Hwan Hwang…

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:174

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  46. Content type: Technical advance

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), establishes life-long latency and can cause symptoms during both first-time infection and later reactivation. The aim of the present study was to describe a protocol to gene...

    Authors: Jan Olsson, Jörgen Johansson, Emma Honkala, Bert Blomqvist, Eloise Kok, Bodil Weidung, Hugo Lövheim and Fredrik Elgh

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:164

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  47. Content type: Research article

    To improve national influenza vaccination recommendations, additional data on influenza A and B virus circulation are needed. Here, we describe the circulation of influenza A and B in the Czech Republic during...

    Authors: Martina Havlickova, Sophie Druelles, Helena Jirincova, Radomira Limberkova, Alexander Nagy, Anvar Rasuli and Jan Kyncl

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:160

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  48. Content type: Research article

    Egypt ranks fifth for the burden of viral hepatitis worldwide. As part of Egypt’s renewed national strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis, surveillance for acute viral hepatitis (AVH) was re-establish...

    Authors: Maha Talaat, Salma Afifi, Erik J. Reaves, Hanaa Abu Elsood, Amany El-Gohary, Samir Refaey, Radi Hammad, Mostafa Abdel Fadeel and Amr Kandeel

    Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:159

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