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Table 5 – Association between S. mansoni infections, water and sanitation variables

From: Association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and access to improved water and sanitation facilities in Mwea, Kirinyaga County, Kenya

Variables S. mansoni OR (95% CI) P-value
Positive Negative
Source of water in the household
 Unprotected dug well/Surface water 180(23.5) 585(76.5) REF  
 Piped 6(12.5) 42(87.5) 0.464(0.194–1.110) 0.078
 Borehole 7(14.3) 42(85.7) 0.542(0.239–1.227) 0.136
 Protected dug well 3(50.0) 3(50.0) 3.250(0.650–16.243) 0.149
 Rainwater collection 10(31.3) 22(68.8) 1.477(0.687–3.178) 0.315
 Other 3(60.0) 2(40.0) 4.875(0.808–29.403) 0.056
Total 209 696   
Time taken to fetch water from the source
 More than 30 min 16(26.2) 45(73.8) REF  
 On premises 64(22.4) 222(77.6) 1.112(0.463–2.672) 0.812
 Less than 30 min 129(23.1) 429(76.9) 1.160(0.494–2.725) 0.733
Total 209 696   
Satisfied with the water supply (source)
 Not satisfied 136(26.7) 374(73.3) REF  
 Satisfied 73(18.5) 322 (81.5) 0.623 (0.452–0.859) 0.004
Total 209 696   
Drinking water classification
 Un improved 182(23.7) 585(76.3) REF  
 Improved 27(19.6) 111(80.4) 0.782(0.497–1.229) 0.285
Total 209 696   
Toilet/Sanitation facility type
 No facility 1(7.1) 13(92.9) REF  
 VIP/simple pit latrine with floor/slab 148(21.8) 530(78.2) 1.755(0.210–14.693) 0.507
 Pit latrine without floor/slab 46(23.2) 152(76.8) 1.852(0.217–15.786) 0.999
 Other 14(93.3) 1(6.7) 2.400(0.264–21.787) 0.661
Total 209 696   
Toilet shared with other households
 Not shared 154(22.2) 540(77.8) REF  
 Shared 54(27.4) 143(72.6) 1.149(0.791–1.668) 0.466
Total 208 683   
Toilet in use
 No 6(66.7) 3(33.3) REF  
 Yes 202 (22.9) 680(77.1) 0.400(0.089–1.802) 0.207
Total 208 683   
Presence of faeces on the floor
 No 163(23.2) 541(76.8) REF  
 Yes 45(24.1) 142(75.9) 1.069(0.730–1.564) 0.732
Total 208 683   
Household has child(ren) under 3 years
 No 161(22.4) 558(77.6) REF  
 Yes 48(25.4) 138(74.6) 1.195(0.820–1.742) 0.353
Total 209 696   
Disposal of faeces for children < 3 years
 Put/rinsed into toilet or latrine 42(25.0) 124(75.0) REF  
 Child used toilet/latrine 3(33.3) 6(66.7) 1.500(0.359–6.270) 0.695
 Other 3(27.3) 8(72.7) 1.125(0.285–4.441) 0.999
 Total 48 138   
Sanitation facility type
 Un-improved 61(26.9) 166(73.1) REF  
 Improved 148(21.8) 530(78.2) 1.018(0.705–1.469) 0.926
 Total 209 696   
  1. N = 905 + Disposal of faeces for children < 3 years, n = 185