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Table 4 Univariate analysis of risk factors for community-onset 3GC-resistant Escherichia coli bacteremia

From: Prevalence of and risk factor for community-onset third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli bacteremia at a medical center in Taiwan

Risk factor 3GC susceptible(n = 543) 3GC resistant (n = 133) OR (95% CI) P value
Age ≥ 65 years old 313 (57.6) 82 (61.7) 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 0.400
Hospitalization within the past 1 year 215 (39.6) 90 (67.7) 3.2 (2.1–4.8) < 0.001
Exposure to antibiotics within the past 15 days 32 (5.9) 23 (17.3) 3.3 (1.9–5.9) < 0.001
Prior cephalosporin use within the past 15 days 23 (4.2) 11 (8.3) 2.0 (1.0–4.3) 0.061
Prior 3GC use within the past 15 days 3 (0.6) 3 (2.3) 4.2 (0.8–20.8) 0.083
Prior fluoroquinolone use within the past 15 days 1 (0.2) 4 (3.0) 16.8(1.9–151.6) 0.012
Neutropenia 18 (3.3) 7 (5.3) 1.6 (0.7–4.0) 0.290
Medical facility utilization:
 OPD for hypertension/ diabetes mellitus 373 (68.7) 100 (75.2) 1.4 (0.9–2.1) 0.144
 OPD for chemotherapy 65 (12.0) 30 (22.6) 2.1 (1.3–3.5) 0.002
 Hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis 14 (2.6) 10 (7.5) 3.1 (1.3–7.1) 0.008
 Nursing home/Long-term care facility 6 (1.1) 6 (4.5) 4.2 (1.3–13.3) 0.014
Charlson comorbidity index ≥2 357 (65.8) 104 (78.2) 1.9 (1.2–2.9) 0.006
Indwelling mucosal catheter:
 Urinary catheter 41 (7.6) 22 (16.5) 2.4 (1.4–4.2) 0.002
 Tracheostomy/endotracheal tube 4 (0.7) 2 (1.5) 2.1 (0.4–11.4) 0.408
 Nasogastric tube 43 (7.9) 14 (10.5) 1.4 (0.7–2.6) 0.334
Indwelling intravenous catheter:
 Central venous catheter 24 (4.4) 10 (7.5) 1.8 (0.8–3.8) 0.147
 Implantable port 31 (5.7) 19 (14.3) 2.8 (1.5–5.0) 0.001
Underlying disease:
 Cardiovascular 283 (52.1) 71 (53.4) 1.1 (0.7–1.5) 0.793
 Respiratory 58 (10.7) 18 (13.5) 1.3 (0.7–2.3) 0.352
 Gastrointestinal 89 (16.4) 30 (22.6) 1.5 (0.9–2.4) 0.096
 Hepatobiliary 135 (24.9) 36 (27.1) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.600
 Genitourinary 112 (20.6) 46 (34.6) 2.0 (1.3–3.1) 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 165 (30.4) 53 (39.9) 1.5 (1.0–2.2) 0.037
 Malignancy 181 (33.3) 70 (52.6) 2.2 (1.5–3.3) < 0.001
Recent surgery 10 (1.8) 6 (4.5) 2.5 (0.9–7.1) 0.079
Nonurinary focus of infection 261 (48.1) 80 (60.2) 1.6 (1.1–2.4) 0.013
Shock upon presentation 78(14.4) 29(21.8) 1.7 (1.0–2.7) 0.037
  1. Abbreviations: 3GC third-generation cephalosporin, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, OPD outpatient department