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Table 2 Results of univariable and multivariable analyses of factors associated with log10 of viral load

From: Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 viral load in HIV-infected outpatients with immunological failure in Tanzania: a case-control study

Variable Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
Slope coefficient [95%CI] p-value Slope coefficient [95%CI] p-value
Female 0.6 [0.07;1.2] 0.029 0.6 [0.05;1.2] 0.034
Age (as a continuous variable) − 0.02 [− 0.05;0.006] 0.11   
Level of education
 Informal Ref    
 Any primary schooling 0.2 [− 0.5;0.9] 0.56   
 Any secondary schooling −0.08 [− 1.8;1.6] 0.92   
 Any university 0.03 [− 0.98;1.04] 0.95   
Time on ART
 6 m-1y Ref    
 1–2y −1.6 [−4.0;0.8] 0.20   
 2–3y −1.0 [− 3.4;1.4] 0.40   
 >3y − 0.7 [− 3.0;1.6] 0.53   
History of change ART Regimen 0.2 [− 0.4;0.8] 0.42   
Highest/Peak CD4 (cells/μL)
 < 200 Ref    
 200–500 −0.8 [− 1.6;-0.05] 0.037   
 500–1000 − 1.1 [− 1.9;-0.3] 0.011   
 > 1000 −3.0 [− 6.2;0.2] 0.068   
Current CD4 (cells/μL)
 < 100 Ref   Ref  
 100–200 − 0.5 [− 1.2;0.08] 0.090 −0.5 [− 1.1;0.2] 0.15
 200–300 −1.4 [−2.2;-0.7] < 0.001 -1.3 [− 2.1;-0.5] 0.001
 > 300 -2.8 [−5.0;-0.6] 0.014 -3.0 [− 5.2;-0.8] 0.007
History of stopping ART −0.05 [− 0.7;0.6] 0.89   
Use of herbal/alternative medicine −0.1 [− 0.7;0.4] 0.61   
Other comorbidities
 None Ref    
 Hypertension −0.7 [− 1.9;0.6] 0.30   
 Others (Diabetes, heart failure, asthma etc.) −0.7 [− 2.2;0.8] 0.34   
Anemia 0.8 [0.3–1.4] 0.005   
Schistosome positivity 0.15 [− 0.5;0.8] 0.63 0.1 [−0.4;0.7] 0.68
Ln of CAA (in ln pg/mL) 0.03 [−0.04;0.1] 0.42   
Years infected with HIV-1 0.1 [0.01;0.2] 0.027 0.06 [−0.06;0.2] 0.32