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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of 188 HIV-1 outpatients with immunological treatment failure on ART

From: Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 viral load in HIV-infected outpatients with immunological failure in Tanzania: a case-control study

Variable Viral load > 1000 copies/mL N (%) or Median [IQR] N = 79 Viral load < = 1000 copies/mL N (%) or Median [IQR] N = 109 p-value
Female 53/79 (67.1%) 63/109 (57.8%) 0.20
Age in years 40 [34–46] 42 [37–48] 0.034
Level of education    0.44
 Informal 47/79 (59.5%) 71/109 (65.1%)  
 Any primary schooling 21/79 (26.6%) 23/109 (21.1%)  
 Any secondary schooling 3/79 (3.8%) 1/109 (0.9%)  
 Any university 8/79 (10.1%) 14/109 (12.8%)  
Time on ART    0.25
 6 m–1y 2/79 (2.5%) 1/109 (0.9%)  
 1–2y 6/79 (7.6%) 18/109 (16.5%)  
 2–3y 14/79 (17.7%) 16/109 (14.7%)  
 >3y 57/79 (72.2%) 74/109 (67.9%)  
ART Regimen    0.77
 AZT/3TC/NVP 35/79 (44.3%) 49/109 (45.0%)  
 AZT/3TC/EFV 10/79 (12.7%) 19/109 (17.4%)  
 TDF/3TC/EFV 22/79 (27.8%) 28/109 (25.7%)  
 TDF/3TC/EFV 12/79 (15.2%) 13/109 (11.9%)  
History of change ART Regimen 34/79 (43.0%) 40/109 (36.7%) 0.38
Peak CD4 (cells/μL) 358 [202–506] 450 [317–630] 0.0027
Current CD4 (cells/μL) 104 [47–179] 192 [125–239] < 0.001
History of stopping ART 19/79 (24.1%) 16/109 (14.7%) 0.10
Use of herbal/alternative medicine 32/79 (40.5%) 54/109 (49.5%) 0.22
Other comorbidities    0.38
 None 73/79 (92.4%) 94/109 (86.2%)  
 Hypertension 4/79 (5.1%) 8/109 (7.3%)  
 Others (Diabetes, heart failure, asthma etc.) 2/79 (2.5%) 7/109 (6.4%)  
Body mass index in kg/m2 21.5 [18.9–25.4] 22 [19.9–24.0] 0.65
Anemia (Hemoglobin< 12 g/dl) 50/79 (6.3%) 37/109 (33.9%) < 0.001
Schistosome positivity 36/71 (50.7%) 49/102 (48.0%) 0.73
Ln of CAA (pg/ml) 3.05 [2.1–5.2] 2.8 [2.0–6.1] 0.65
Years infected with HIV-1 8.9 [6.6–11.1] 9.9 [7.7–11.4] 0.068