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Table 2 Risk factors assessment of 73 CDI patients and 766 non-CDI controls

From: Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized adults and the first isolation of C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 in central China

Characteristic TCD infection (N = 73) n (%) Control (N = 766) n (%) P valuea
Demographic data
 Age (Median, Interquartile range) 52 (37.3–64.8) 51 (38–63) 0.908
 Age ≥ 65 years 18 (25.0) 155 (20.2) 0.868
 Male sex 58 (79.5) 500 (65.3) 0.098
 Community-acquired diarrhea 15 (20.5) 168 (21.9) 0.980
 Gastrointestinal disease 22 (30.1) 217 (28.3) 1.042
 Hepatobiliary disease 6 (8.2) 65 (8.5) 1.026
 Cardiovascular disease 6 (8.2) 51 (6.7) 0.910b
 Kidney disease 9 (12.3) 13 (1.7) < 0.001 ***
 Hemopathy 4 (5.5) 36 (4.7) 1.038b
 Malignancy 4 (5.5) 21 (2.7) 0.843b
 Autoimmune disease 1 (1.4) 15 (2.0) 1.000b
 Diabetes mellitus 5 (6.8) 44 (5.7) 0.922b
Presumed risk factors
 Prior hospitalization 43 (58.9) 458 (59.8) 1.030
 Antibiotic 53 (72.6) 380 (49.6) 0.003**
  No. of antibiotics (≥3) 14 (19.2) 112 (14.6) 0.373
  Aminoglycosides 2 (2.7) 10 (1.3) 0.401b
  β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations 34 (46.6) 165 (21.5) < 0.001***
  Carbapenems 17 (23.3) 127 (16.6) 0.365
  3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins 3 (4.1) 10 (1.3) 0.320b
  Fluoroquinolones 24 (32.9) 147 (19.2) 0.030*
  Glycopeptide 6 (8.2) 38 (5.0) 0.440b
  Tetracyclines 3 (4.1) 47 (6.1) 0.681b
  Metronidazole 4 (5.5) 51 (6.7) 0.697b
  Vancomycin 4 (5.5) 20 (2.6) 0.296b
 Proton pump inhibitors 45 (61.6) 421 (55.0) 0.793
 Nasogastric tube 11 (15.1) 89 (1.6) 0.842
 Abdominal surgery 2 (2.7) 29 (3.8) 1.000b
 Chemotherapy 2 (2.7) 37 (4.8) 0.947b
 Immunosuppressive agents 2 (2.7) 10 (1.3) 0.757b
Biological parameters
 WBC (×109/L) 6.5 (4.54–9.26) 6.23 (4.89–8.10) 1.034
 WBC count > 9.5 × 109/L 17 (23.3) 152 (11.8) 0.939
 NEU% 73.6 (64.9–81.4) 64.00 (56.5–75.7) 0.035*
 Neutropenia (> 75%) 29 (39.7) 241 (31.5) 0.579
 HB (g/L) 116 (92–128) 123.00 (108–135) 0.655
 PLT (×109/) 204 (138--271) 192.00 (155–262) 0.933
 ALB (g/L) 36 (30.1–41.1) 40.4 (35.3–42.4) 0.420
 Hypoalbuminemia (< 35 g/L) 33 (45.2) 206 (26.9) 0.012*
 AST (U/L) 19 (13–26) 18 (15–26) 0.999
 CRE (umol/L) 73 (53–100) 65 (56–83) 0.728
 Serum creatinine > 195 μmol/L 3 (4.1) 10 (1.3) 0.420b
 hsCRP (mg/L) 11.1 (4.8–77.7) 4.6 (0.7–27.6) 0.426
Clinical symptoms
 Abdominal pain 7 (9.6) 57 (7.4) 0.938
 Fever 4 (5.5) 36 (4.7) 0.999b
 Vomit 1 (1.4) 8 (1.0) 0.982
 Hematochezia 6 (8.2) 57 (7.4) 0.978
  1. WBC white blood cell count, NEU neutrophile granulocyte, HB hemoglobin, PLT blood platelet count, ALB albumin, AST glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, CRE serum creatinine, hsCRP high sensitivity C reactive protein, aFalse discovery rate (FDR) estimation for multiple testing correction; bFisher’s exact test; * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001