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Table 3 Stigma and Outness among MSM and Transgender Women Participants, Eswatini 2014 (N = 532)

From: Stigma and outness about sexual behaviors among cisgender men who have sex with men and transgender women in Eswatini: a latent class analysis

Stigma Total Out to Family Out to Healthcare provider
  n % OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Personal-life stigma as a result of having sex with men
 Felt excluded at family gatherings 130 24.5 2.01 1.35, 3.00 1.64 1.03, 2.60
 Felt that family members made discriminatory remarks or gossiped 173 32.6 4.07 2.77, 5.98 2.50 1.62, 3.87
 Felt rejected by friends 116 21.9 4.44 2.83, 6.97 3.91 2.47, 6.19
Social stigma/violence as a result of having sex with men
 Felt police refused to protect you 77 14.6 1.78 1.09, 2.89 1.68 0.97, 2.91
 Felt scared to walk around in public places 200 37.7 1.61 1.13, 2.29 1.47 0.96, 2.26
 Verbally harassed 232 43.7 4.21 2.92, 6.06 3.63 2.31, 5.71
 Blackmailed 117 22.0 2.51 1.65, 3.83 2.66 1.67, 4.22
 Physically hurt 104 19.6 2.51 0.81, 1.91 1.49 0.90, 2.45
 Tortured 95 18.0 0.93 0.59, 1.45 1.30 0.77, 2.19
Healthcare stigma as a result of having sex with men
 Felt not treated well in a health center 58 10.9 0.71 0.40, 1.25 2.49 1.39, 4.46
 Heard healthcare providers gossiping 73 13.8 1.22 0.74, 2.00 2.16 1.25, 3.71
 Felt afraid to go to healthcare services 193 36.4 0.87 0.61, 1.24 1.37 0.89, 2.11
 Avoided going to healthcare services 185 34.8 0.97 0.68, 1.39 1.81 1.18, 2.79