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Table 5 Stigma Item Frequencies in the MSMa Stigma Metric in Burkina Faso and Togo

From: Development and reliability of metrics to characterize types and sources of stigma among men who have sex with men and female sex workers in Togo and Burkina Faso

City Ouagadougou (n = 343) Bobo-Dioulasso (n = 330) Lomé (n = 354) Kara (n = 329)
Factor 1: Experienced stigma
 1. Police refused 5.2% (18/342) 3.3% (11/330) 3.7% (13/354) 0.3% (1/329)
 2. Arrested 1.7% (6/343) 1.2% (4/329) 2.8% (10/354) 0.3% (1/329)
 3. Verbally harassed 34.7% (119/343) 44.7% (147/329) 18.9% (67/354) 18.2% (60/329)
 4. Blackmailed 24.8% (85/343) 14.9% (49/329) 16.1% (57/354) 21.9% (72/329)
 5. Physically abused 9.6% (33/343) 15.3% (50/327) 4.2% (15/354) 4.0% (13/329)
 6. Tortured 2.9% (10/343) 2.8% (9/326) 3.1% (11/354) 3.0% (10/329)
 7. Forced sex 10.5% (36/342) 10.7% (35/328) 3.7% (13/354) 4.3% (14/329)
Factor 2: Experienced healthcare stigma
 1. Denied care 1.5% (5/342) 0.9% (3/330) 1.1% (4/354) 0.0% (0/329)
 2. Not treated well 4.4% (15/343) 3.3% (11/330) 2.0% (7/354) 0.6% (2/329)
 3. Health workers gossiped 12.0% (41/343) 2.7% (9/330) 3.4% (12/354) 6.7% (22/329)
 4. Difficulties 7.3% (25/343) 1.8% (6/330) 17.0% (60/354) 7.3% (24/329)
Factor 3: Anticipated healthcare stigma
 1. Afraid to seek care 40.8% (140/343) 23.6% (78/330) 8.5% (30/354) 11.3% (37/329)
 2. Avoided care 36.4% (125/343) 20.0% (66/330) 7.1% (25/354) 9.1% (30/329)
Factor 4: Stigma from family and friends
 1. Family excluded 12.2% (42/343) 8.2% (27/330) 6.5% (23/354) 12.2% (40/329)
 2. Family gossiped 37.3% (128/343) 26.4% (87/329) 15.3% (54/354) 19.5% (64/329)
 3. Friends rejected 35.9% (123/343) 26.1% (86/330) 8.8% (31/354) 16.4% (54/329)
  1. amen who have sex with men