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Table 1 Items included and excluded from FSWa and MSMb stigma metrics in Burkina Faso and Togo

From: Development and reliability of metrics to characterize types and sources of stigma among men who have sex with men and female sex workers in Togo and Burkina Faso

Variable name Question text
Police harassed Have police ever harassed or intimidated you for being a sex worker?
Arrested Were you ever arrested on charges related to sex work/ of homosexuality [or other related charge]?
Verbally harassed Have you ever been verbally harassed and felt it was because you sell sex/ have sex with men?
Blackmailed Have you ever been blackmailed by someone because you sell sex/ have sex with men?
Physically abused Have you ever been physically aggressed (pushed, shoved; slapped; hit; kicked; choked; or otherwise physically hurt)? Do you believe any of these experience(s) of physical violence was/were related to the fact that you sell sex/ have sex with men?
Tortured Have you ever been tortured by someone? If yes, do you believe this was because you sell sex/ have sex with men?
Forced sex Have you ever been forced to have sex when you did not want to? (By forced, I mean physically forced, coerced to have sex, or penetrated with an object, when you did not want to). Do you believe any of these experiences of sexual violence were related to the fact that you sell sex/ have sex with men?
Denied care Have you ever been denied health services (or someone kept you from receiving health services) because you sell sex/ have sex with men?
Not treated well Have you ever felt that you were not treated well in a health center because you sell sex/ someone knew that you have sex with men?
Health workers gossiped Have you ever heard healthcare providers gossiping about you because you sell sex/ have sex with men?
Difficulties Have you ever had difficulties in accessing healthcare services because you have sex with men?
Afraid to seek care Have you ever felt afraid to go to healthcare services because you worry someone may learn you sell sex/ have sex with men?
Avoided care Have you ever avoided going to healthcare services because you worry someone may learn you sell sex/ have sex with men?
Family excluded Have you ever felt excluded from family gatherings because you sell sex/ have sex with men?
Family gossiped Have you ever felt that family members have made discriminatory remarks or gossiped about you because you sell sex/ have sex with men?
Friends rejected Have you ever felt rejected by your friends because you sell sex/ have sex with men?
Police refused Have you ever felt that the police refused to protect you because you sell sex/ have sex with men?
Avoided carrying condoms Have you ever avoided carrying condoms because you were afraid that they might get you in trouble with the police?
Police confiscated Has a police officer ever taken condoms away from you, thrown them on the ground or in the garbage?
Witnessed confiscation Have you ever witnessed (i.e. seen) police confiscating or destroying condoms held by a sex worker or outreach worker?
Heard about confiscation Have you ever heard about incidents when police confiscated or destroyed condoms held by other sex workers or by outreach workers?
Question Reason for excluding
Female sex workers
 Have you ever lost employment or been dismissed from a job (other than sex work) because you sell sex? Many participants answered “not applicable”; did not load strongly on any factor
 Have you ever been denied educational opportunities, like access to school, because you sell sex? Many participants answered “not applicable”; did not load strongly on any factor
 Have you ever had difficulties in accessing healthcare services because you sell sex? High uniqueness; did not load on any factor in multiple datasets
 Have you ever been tested for HIV when you did not want to or did not give permission? If yes, were you forced or pressured to test for HIV because you sell sex? Very rare (9 people in all cities combined)
 Have you ever refused to take condoms from an outreach worker because you were afraid they might get you in trouble with the police? Very rare (17 total in all cities combined)
 Have you ever felt scared to walk around in public places because you sell sex? Did not load on any factor; may be measuring something other than stigma
Men who have sex with men
 Have you ever lost employment or been dismissed from a job because you have sex with men? Loaded on a different factor in every city
 Have you ever been denied educational or training opportunities, like access to school, because you have sex with men? Rare (10 people or less per city); did not load on any factors; lowered the Cronbach’s alpha of the metric
 Has anyone ever said discriminatory things about homosexuality in your presence without knowing you have sex with other men? Did not load on any factors; lowered the Cronbach’s alpha
 Have you ever been tested for HIV when you did not want to or did not give permission? If yes, were you forced or pressured to test for HIV because you have sex with men? Very rare (only 8 people in all cities combined)
  1. Bold = wording in the female sex worker questionnaire
  2. Italics = wording in the men who have sex with men questionnaire
  3. afemale sex worker
  4. bmen who have sex with men