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Table 5 Risk factors associated with HIV in bivariate and multivariable logistic regression among drug users

From: HIV prevalence, related risk behaviors, and correlates of HIV infection among people who use drugs in Cambodia

Variables N = 1583 Total sample (N = 1186)
OR (95% CI) P valueb AORa (95% CI) P valueb
Provincial groupa
 Low risk provinces Referent   Referent  
 High risk provinces 5.2 (2.59–10.56) <  0.001 1.9 (0.78–4.79) 0.154
Sex of drug users
 Men Referent   Referent  
 Women 5.6 (2.95–10.59) <  0.001 7.8 (3.00–20.35) <  0.001
Age group in years
  ≤ 20 Referent   Referent  
 21–29 21.2 (2.73–164.16) 0.003 10.3 (1.20–89.39) 0.033
  ≥ 30 78.5 (10.53–584. 18) <  0.001 36.4 (3.59–369.36) 0.002
Marital status
 Non-married Referent   Referent  
 Married 2.9 (1.37–6.01) 0.005 0.48 (0.17–1.47) 0.205
Education level
  ≤ 6 years (Primary) 2.4 (1.22–4.68) 0.011 0.92 (0.37–2.27) 0.866
  > 6 years (Secondary and higher) Referent   Referent  
Drug use type
 Non-PWID Referent   Referent  
 PWID 4.6 (2.31–9.19) <  0.001 4.1 (1.53–10.96) 0.005
Number of paid and paying sex partners In past month
  < 2 partners Referent   Referent  
  ≥ 2 partners 3.5 (1.64–7.48) 0.001 1.1 (0.42–2.47) 0.961
Duration of using drugs
  ≤ 12 months Referent   Referent  
  > 12 months 2.7 (1.27–5.63) 0.010 4.0 (1.38–11.35) 0.010
Consistent condom use with casual
partner in the past 12 months
 Yes Referent    
 No 1.1 (0.59–2.10) 0.735
More than one drug use in past 12 months
 One drug Referent    
 More than one drug 1.1 (0.59–2.10) 0.735
  1. aHigh risk provinces: Sihanoukville, Phnom Penh, Battambang, Banteay Meanchey
  2. bThe results in this table were weighted
  3. Low risk provinces: Kampong Speu, Kampong Cham, Prey Veng, Svay Rieng, Siem Reap