You are viewing the site in preview mode

Skip to content

Advertisement

  • Case report
  • Open Access
  • Open Peer Review

First report on cutaneous infectious granuloma caused by Schizophyllum commune

Contributed equally
BMC Infectious Diseases201818:286

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3187-5

  • Received: 24 January 2018
  • Accepted: 7 June 2018
  • Published:
Open Peer Review reports

Abstract

Background

Schizophyllum commune, a basidiomycetous fungus, is a common invader of rotten wood. This fungus rarely causes mycotic disease in humans, especially cutaneous infection. In this paper, we describe the first case of cutaneous granuloma caused by S. commune in a Chinese woman.

Case presentation

A 25-year-old female with a two-year history of erythema, papules, nodules, and scales on her sole of left foot was presented to our outpatient center. Samples were obtained by the scraping of lesion and for light microscopy. Hyphae were observed by microscopic examination. We carried out a skin tissue biopsy, which showed multiple granulomatous nodules. Biopsy specimens were also inoculated onto media. After being cultured on SDA at 27 °C for 7 days, spreading-woolly-white colonies grew on the inoculation sites of media containing chloramphenicol only and there,s no other colonies grew. S. commune was identified by morphology methods, biochemical tests, and PCR sequencing. Pathological findings also aided in diagnosing cutaneous fungal granuloma. Oral itraconazole was applied. After 1 month of therapy, rashes on her left foot and pain were improved.

Conclusion

We describe the first case of cutaneous granuloma caused by Schizophyllum commune, which illustrates the importance of recognizing uncommon pathogenic fungal infections.

Keywords

  • Cutaneous granulomas
  • Itraconazole
  • Schizophyllum commune

Background

Schizophyllum commune is a common fungal species, which belongs to Eukaryota, Opisthokonta, Fungi, Dikarya, Basidiomycota, Agaricomycotina, Agaricomycetes, Agaricomycetidae, Agaricales, Schizophyllaceae, Schizophyllum. This fungus colonizes diverse trees and rotting woods worldwide [13]. S. commune has also long been regarded as nonpathogenic to humans [4, 5]. Recently, an increasing number of cases related to S. commune infection has been reported. Most reports are associated with allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) after inhaling the spores of S. commune [1, 2, 6]. Infection in deep tissues, such as the sphenoid sinus, maxillary sinus, and brain, has also been recently reported [2, 79]. To our knowledge, the cutaneous infection caused by S. commune has not been reported yet.

Case presentation

A 25-year-old female with a two-year history of erythema, papules, nodules, and scales on her sole of left foot was presented to our outpatient center. She has no history of autoimmue disease and untreated with immunosuppressive therapy. Considering her pregnancy, she was not given treatments for 1 year. The left foot skin lesion on the medial and lateral margins and on the fourth toe dorsum became enlarged with evident pain after more than 1 year (Fig. 1a and b). Approximately 1 month before visiting our department, she received treatment ineffectively in a local clinic, and the diagnosis was unclear.
Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a, b) Sole of left foot exhibits erythema, papules, nodules, and scales. The fourth toe dorsum is also infected. (c, d) Foot lesions regressed after 1 month of treatment

Samples were obtained by the scraping of lesion and for light microscopy. Hyphae were observed by microscopic examination (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Hyphae were observed by microscopic examination (400×)

We carried out a skin tissue biopsy, which showed multiple granulomatous nodules (Fig. 3a). The Ziehl–Neelsen stain was negative. Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) and Grocott methenamine silver (GMS) staining were carried out two times. Results were also negative. Biopsy specimens were also inoculated onto two kinds of media: Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA), where one of which contained chloramphenicol and cycloheximide, and the other one contained chloramphenicol only. After being cultured on SDA at 27 °C for 7 days, spreading-woolly-white colonies grew on the inoculation sites of media containing chloramphenicol only and there,s no other colonies grew (Fig. 3b). The colonies produced an unpleasant smell like biogas. No colony was observed on the media with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Clamp connections, spicules, tear-like secretions, and medusa-like isomers were observed on the slide culture at 27 °C after 3 days (Fig. 3c and d). Urease activity tests were also performed. Trichophyton rubrum standard strain and the isolated strain were cultured on urease media at 27 °C for 7 days. The T. rubrum standard strain was negative, whereas the isolated strain turned red (Fig. 3e and f).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) stain for pathology study showed multiple granulomatous nodules (× 200). b When cultured on Sabourauds dextrose agar, spreading-woolly-white colonies grew on the media containing chloramphenicol only. c, d Clamp connections (), spicules (), tear-like secretions(), and medusa-like isomers were observed on the slide culture at 27 °C after 3 days (400×). e, f Urease activity test before and after cultivation: isolated strain (+), Trichophyton rubrum standard strain (−)

Sequencing of large subunit rDNA was performed by using the E.Z.N.A.™ Fungal DNA Mini Kit (Omega Biotek, USA). We utilized set primers for the region of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and performed PCR. The PCR primers were ITS1: 5′-TCCGTAGGTGAACCTGCGG-3′ and ITS4: 5′-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3′. The PCR-amplified DNA was matched with that of S. commune (Nos. KP 326677.1 and KP 004975.1) with a homology of 100%. After identification, the sequence was submitted to the GenBank (MF 495704).

Pathological finding and mycological examination indicated a cutaneous granuloma caused by S. commune. Oral itraconazole (100 mg) was applied twice a day. The rashes on the left foot and the pain regressed after 1 month of treatment (Fig. 1c and d). Follow-up is currently under way.

Discussion and conclusions

To our knowledge, fungal granuloma is caused by a wide variety of fungi, such as Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Cryptococcus, T. rubrum, and T. mentagraphytes, but some less known fungi have been recently documented as causes of fungal granuloma [10]. In the past, S. commune was regarded as a rare human pathogen. Since 1950 when Kligman reported the first case of onychomycosis caused by S. commune, this fungus has emerged as an increasingly important pathogen for clinical disease [11]. We conducted a literature review through PubMed and found that S. commune is an opportunistic pathogenic fungus that can cause sinusitis and ABPM mostly [3, 12], as well as rarely isolated from patients with onychomycosis, palate ulceration [11, 13]. Table 1 shows the clinical spectrum of fungal disease caused by S. commune and country-wise distribution of clinical cases. Cutaneous and subcutaneous infections caused by S. commune have not been previously reported.
Table 1

Clinical spectrum of disease due to Schizophyllum commune and country-wise distribution of clinical cases (n = 99)

Mycosis (No. of case)

Country (No. of cases)

References

Sinusitis (34)

Austria (5)

[14, 15]

USA(3)

[8, 16]

Colombia(3)

[1719]

France (3)

[2022]

Serbia (2)

[23, 24]

India(2)

[25, 26]

U.K. (1)

[27]

Japan (7)

[2830]

Australia (1)

[31]

New Zealand(2)

[5, 32]

South Korea(3)

[2, 33]

China(2)

[34, 35]

ABPM (30)

Japan(29)

[3, 5, 3649]

India(1)a

[50]

Bronchial mucoid impaction (8)

Japan(8)

[38, 45, 5156]

Pulmonary fungal ball (2)

North America(1)

[57]

India(1)

[50]

Schizophyllum asthma(2)

Japan(2)

[58]

Pulmonary infiltrate plus eosinophilia (1)

Japan(1)

[38]

Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (1)

Japan(1)

[59]

Honeycomb lung (1)

Japan(1)

[60]

Bronchogenous cyst (1)

Serbia (1)

[61]

Pulmonary nodules (1)

Taiwan (1)

[62]

Other pulmonary mycoses (11)

Iran (7)

[63]

Japan (3)

[38]

Italy (1)

[64]

Brain abscess (2)

USA (1)

[9]

Austria (1)

[15]

Ulceration of the palate (1)

Colombia (1)

[13]

Otitis externa (1)

Slovenia (1)

[65]

Fatal Empyema Thoracis (1)

Hong Kong (1)

[66]

Onychomycosis (1)

USA (1)

[11]

Meningitis (1)

Brazil (1)

[67]

ainclude only one case, but the patient has the allergic broncho-pulmonary mycosis and bronchial mucoid impaction at the same time

In our case, colonies grew on the inoculation sites of media with no other colonies grew and antifungal therapy only was effective, which can be excluded the possibility of contamination. We describe the first case of cutaneous granuloma caused by S. commune, which illustrates the importance of recognizing uncommon pathogenic fungal infections.

Notes

Abbreviations

ABPM: 

Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis

GMS: 

Grocott methenamine silver

ITS: 

Internal transcribed spacer

PAS: 

Periodic acid–Schiff

PCR: 

Polymerase chain reaction

S. commune

Schizophyllum commune

SDA: 

Sabourauds dextrose agar,

T. mentagraphytes

Trichophyton mentagraphytes

T. rubrum

Trichophyton rubrum

Declarations

Acknowledgments

We thank Prof. Lin Wang from West China Hospital of Sichuan University for pathologic diagnosis assistance.

Fundings

This work was supported by local city-school cooperation project (NSMC20170418) and the Project Q15005 of Youth innovation in medical research of Sichuan Province.

Availability of data and materials

Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.

Authors’ contributions

LT and YM conceptualized, collected and interpreted the clinical data, and wrote the manuscript. HZ designed, interpreted the clinical data and wrote the manuscript. XcS, CY, and XzS revised the manuscript critically for important content. DQ carried out the microbiological examination and nucleotide sequencing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Written informed consent was obtained from the individual patient described in this report. A copy of the written consent is available by request.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Dermatology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, China
(2)
Department of Dermatology, Shenzhen Baoan Central Hospital and the 5th Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, China

References

  1. Ren Q, Wan L, Ju Y, et al. Animal experimental study of the pathogenicity of Schizophyllum commune. J Clin Dermatol. 2011;40(10):587–91.Google Scholar
  2. Won EJ, Shin JH, Sang CL, et al. Molecular identification of Schizophyllum commune as a cause of allergic fungal sinusitis. Ann Lab Med. 2012;32(5):375–9.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Kobayashi H, Taira T, Wakuda K, et al. A favorable clinical effect of an expectorant in allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Schizophyllum commune. Respiratory Med Case Rep. 2016;19:54–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Unno H, Kamei K, Honda A, et al. A murine model of pulmonary basidiomycosis by Schizophyllum commune. J Infect Chemother. 2005;11(3):136–40.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Kamei K, Unno H, Nagao K, et al. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by the basidiomycetous fungus Schizophyllum commune. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;18(3):305–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Tanaka H, Takizawa K, Baba O, et al. Basidiomycosis: Schizophyllum commune osteomyelitis in a dog. J Vet Med Sci. 2008;70(11):1257–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Roh ML, Tuazon CU, Mandler R, et al. Sphenocavernous syndrome associated with Schizophyllum commune infection of the sphenoid sinus. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;21(1):71–4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Kern ME, Uecker FA. Maxillary sinus infection caused by the homobasidiomycetous fungus Schizophyllum commune. J Clin Microbiol. 1986;23(6):1001–5.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Rihs JD, Padhye AA, Good CB. Brain abscess caused by Schizophyllum commune: an emerging basidiomycete pathogen. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34(7):1628.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Li G. The research progress of fungal granuloma. Chin J Mycol. 2014;9(6):373–6.Google Scholar
  11. Kligman AM. A Basidiomycete causing onychomycosis. illust. 1950;14(1):67–70.Google Scholar
  12. Seki M, Ohno H, Gotoh K, et al. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis due to co-infection with aspergillus fumigatus, and Schizophyllum commune. Idcases. 2014;1(1):5–8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Restrepo A, Greer DL, Robledo M, et al. Ulceration of the palate caused by a basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. Sabouraudia. 1973;11(3):201.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Buzina W, Lang-Loidolt D, Braun H, Freudenschuss K, Stammberger H. Development of molecular methods for identification of Schizophyllum commune from clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:2391–6.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Hoenigl M, Aspeck E, Valentin T, et al. Sinusitis and frontal brain abscess in a diabetic patient caused by the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune: case report and review of the literature. Mycoses. 2013;56(3):389–93.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Rosenthal J, Katz R, DuBois DB, Morrissey A, Machicao A. Chronic maxillary sinusitis associated with the mushroom Schizophyllum commune in a patient with AIDS. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;14:46–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Sigler L, Estrada S, Montealegre NA, et al. Maxillary sinusitis caused by Schizophyllum commune and experience with treatment. J Med Vet Mycol. 1997;35(5):365–70.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Jiménez R, Rodríguez C, Arango M, et al. Sinusitis por Schyzophyllum commune: informe de nueve casos. Infectio. 2002;6:108.Google Scholar
  19. Castro LÁ, Álvarez MI, Martínez E. Case report of Schizophyllum commune sinusitis in an immunocompetent patient. Colombia Med. 2010;41(1):71–5.Google Scholar
  20. Marlier S, De Jaureguiberry JP, Aguilon P, et al. Chronic sinusitis caused by Schizophyllum commune in AIDS. Presse Med. 1993;22(23):1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Baron O, Cassaing S, Percodani J, et al. Nucleotide sequencing for diagnosis of sinusal infection by Schizophyllum commune, an uncommon pathogenic fungus. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44(8):3042–3.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Lorentz C, Rivier A, Debourgogne A, et al. Ethmoido-maxillary sinusitis caused by the basidiomycetous fungus Schizophyllum commune. Mycoses. 2012;55(2):8–12.Google Scholar
  23. Pekic S, Arsenijevic VA, Gazibara MS, et al. What lurks in the sellar? Lancet. 2010;375(9712):432.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Perić A, Vojvodić D, Zolotarevski L, et al. Nasal polyposis and fungal Schizophyllum commune infection: a case report. Acta Med Austriaca. 2011;54(2):83–6.Google Scholar
  25. Premamalini T, Ambujavalli B T, Anitha S, et al. Schizophyllum commune a causative agent of fungal sinusitis: a case report. Case Rep Infect Dis. 2011;(10):821259.Google Scholar
  26. Adhikary R, Joshi S. Comment on: Schizophyllum commune sinusitis in an immunocompetent host. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2012;30(2):249.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Clark S, Campbell CK, Sandison A, et al. Schizophyllum commune: an unusual isolate from a patient with allergic fungal sinusitis. J Infect. 1996;32(2):147.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Taguchi K, Oharaseki T, Yokouchi Y, et al. Allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Bipolaris spicifera and Schizophyllum commune. Med Mycol. 2007;45(6):559.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Matsuwaki Y, Ogawa H, Iwasaki H, et al. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) caused by the basidiomycetous fungus Schizophyllum commune. Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Tokyo. 2013;56(6):8–18.Google Scholar
  30. Ahmed MK, Ishino T, Takeno S, et al. Bilateral allergic fungal rhinosinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune and aspergillus Niger. A case report. Rhinology. 2009;47(2):217–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Shaw CL, Mccleave M, Wormald PJ. Unusual presentations of isolated sphenoid fungal sinusitis. J Laryngol Otol. 2000;114(114):385–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Sigler L, Bartley JR, Parr DH, et al. Maxillary sinusitis caused by medusoid form of Schizophyllum commune. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37(10):3395–8.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Sa HS, Ko KS, Woo KI, et al. A case of sino-orbital infection caused by the Schizophyllum commune. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;73(4):376–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu X, Zou H, Chen Q-J, et al. Allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Schizophyllum commune. World J Otorhinolary-Head Neck Surg. 2017;3(1):59–63.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  35. Yin X, Liang Y, Zeng L, et al. A case of sinusitis caused by Schizophyllum commune and Bacteria in acute Myelocytic leukemia. Clin Lab. 2015;61(11):1799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Tomita K, Hashizume I, Kasamatsu N, et al. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Schizophyllum commune. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1996;34(7):804–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Yamashina S. Case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Schizophyllum commune. Jpn J Antibiot. 1997;50(1):51–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Kamei K, Unno H, Ito J, et al. Analysis of the cases in which Schizophyllum commune was isolated. Nihon Ishinkin Gakkai zasshi. 1999;40(3):175–81.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Yamasaki A, Nishimura K, Sano H, et al. A case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Schizophyllum commune. Allergy. 2002;51(5):439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Kawano T, Matsuse H, Iida K, et al. Two cases of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Schizophyllum commune in young asthmatic patients. Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi. 2003;41(3):233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Amemiya Y, Shirai R, Tokimatsu I, et al. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis induced by Schizophyllum commune--case report and review of the literature. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai zasshi. 2009;47(8):692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Masunaga A, Morimoto K, Ando T, et al. Three cases of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis due to Schizophyllum commune. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai zasshi. 2010;48(12):912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Ishiguro T, Takayanagi N, Saito A, et al. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis due to Schizophyllum commune and aspergillus fumigatus. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai zasshi. 2011;49(8):612–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ogawa H, Fujimura M, Takeuchi Y, et al. The definitive diagnostic process and successful treatment for ABPM caused by Schizophyllum commune: a report of two cases. Allergol Int. 2012;61(1):163–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Uruga H, Imafuku A, Hanada S, et al. A case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Schizophyllum commune presenting with hyperattenuated mucoid impaction. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2010;48(10):749–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Ikushima S. Case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Schizophyllum commune. Jpn J Antibiot. 1997;50:47–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Nishimura K. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by the Basidiomycetous fungus Schizophyllum commune[J]. Clin Infect Dis. 1994;18(3):305–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Tomita K, Hashizume I. Kasamatsu N, et al. [allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis caused by Schizophyllum commune][J]. Nihon Kyōbu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1996;34(7):804–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Seki M, Ohno H, Gotoh K, et al. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis due to co-infection with aspergillus fumigatus, and Schizophyllum commune[J]. Idcases. 2014;1(1):5–8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Chowdhary A, Randhawa HS, Gaur SN, et al. Schizophyllum commune, as an emerging fungal pathogen: a review and report of two cases. Mycoses. 2013;56(1):1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Amitani R, Nishimura K, Niimi A, et al. Bronchial mucoid impaction due to the Monokaryotic mycelium of Schizophyllum commune. Clin Infect Dis. 1996;22(1):146–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Miyazaki Y, Sakashita H, Tanaka T, et al. Mucoid impaction caused by monokaryotic mycelium of Schizophyllum commune in association with bronchiectasis. Intern Med. 2000;39(2):160–2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Itou Y, Sasaki S, Watanabe S, et al. A case of mucoid impaction of bronchi (MIB) due to Schizophyllum commune. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2001;39:266–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Ishiguro T, Takayanagi N, Tokunaga D, et al. Pulmonary Schizophyllum commune infection developing mucoid impaction of the bronchi. Yale J Biol Med. 2007;80(3):105–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ishiguro T, Takayanagi N, Harasaw K, et al. Mucoid impaction of the bronchi caused by Schizophyllum commune which developed after discontinuation of itraconazole administration. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai zasshi. 2009;47(4):296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kato F, Kasamaatsu N, Kasai H, et al. A case of mucoid impaction of bronchi caused by Schizophyllum commune. J Jpn Soc Bronchology. 2012;34:38–43.Google Scholar
  57. Sigler L, Maza LMDL, Tan G, et al. Diagnostic difficulties caused by a nonclamped Schizophyllum commune isolate in a case of fungus ball of the lung. J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33(8):1979–83.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Ogawa H, Fujimura M, Takeuchi Y, et al. Two cases of Schizophyllum asthma: is this a new clinical entity or a precursor of ABPM? Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2011;24(5):559–62.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kawayama T, Fujiki R, Rikimaru T, et al. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia associated with, Schizophyllum commune. Respirology. 2003;8(4):529–31.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Iizasa T, Kamei K, Chiyo M, et al. Colonization with Schizophyllum commune of localized honeycomb lung with mucus. Respiration. 2001;68(2):201–3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Bulajic N, Cvijanovic V, Vukojevic J, et al. Schizophyllum commune, associated with bronchogenous cyst. Mycoses. 2006;49(4):343–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Roan JN, Hsieh HY, Tsai HW, et al. Pulmonary nodules caused by Schizophyllum commune, after cardiac transplantation. J Infect. 2009;58(2):164–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Chadeganipour M, Bonerje G, Nilipour S. Detection of antibodies in immunocompromised patients affected with pulmonary Schizophyllum infection. Clin Immunol. 2010;135(1):S75.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  64. Tullio V, Mandras N, Banche G, et al. Schizophyllum commune: an unusual of agent bronchopneumonia in an immunocompromised patient. Med Mycol. 2009;46(46):735–8.Google Scholar
  65. Matos T, Tomazin R, Battelino S. First report of otitis externa caused by Schizophyllum commune and review of the literature. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2016;128(9–10):387–90.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Chan JFW, Teng JLL, Li IWS, et al. Fatal empyema Thoracis caused by Schizophyllum commune with cross-reactive Cryptococcal Antigenemia. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52(2):683.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Chavez-Batista A, Maica JA, Singer R. Basidio-neuromycosis on man. Anals da Sociedade de Biologia de Pernambuco. 1955;13:52–60.Google Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s). 2018

Advertisement