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Table 1 Clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters of 199 patients hospitalised with severe dengue in 2014

From: Prediction of mortality in severe dengue cases

  All (N = 199) Died (N = 20) Survived (N = 179) p-value
  n n(%) or median(IQR) n n(%) or median(IQR) n n(%) or median(IQR)  
Age, years 197 30.8 (24.7–41.3) 20 43.5 (30.3–54.8) 177 30.2 (23.9–38.9) 0.0003
BMI 117 24.9 (21.3–29.7) 6 23.6 (22.7–24.1) 111 25.3 (21.3–30.0) 0.29
Gender, Male 199 127 (63.8%) 20 13 (65%) 179 114 (63.7%) 0.91
Presence of any co-morbidity 198 62 (31.2%) 20 9 (45%) 178 53 (29.6%) 0.16
Co-morbidity
 COPD/BA   9 (4.6%)   0 (0%)   9 (5.1%)  
 DM   24 (12.1%)   5 (25%)   19 (10.7%)  
 Hypertension   9 (4.6%)   2 (10%)   7 (3.9%)  
 IHD   2 (1%)   1 (5%)   1 (0.6%)  
 Pregnancy   8 (4%)   1 (5%)   7 (3.9%)  
 Others   10 (5.1%)   0 (0%)   10 (5.6%)  
Multiple co-morbidities 198 20 (10.1%) 20 5 (25%) 178 15 (8.4%) 0.04a
NS1 198 132 (66.7%) 20 13 (65%) 178 119 (66.9%) 0.87
High-titre IgG 198 47 (23.7%) 20 5 (25%) 178 42 (23.6%) 0.89
IgM 198 115 (58.1%) 20 14 (70%) 178 101 (56.7%) 0.25
Persistent vomiting 198 114 (57.6%) 20 14 (70%) 178 100 (56.2%) 0.24
Abdominal pain 198 89 (45%) 20 7 (35%) 178 82 (46.1%) 0.35
Lethargy 198 96 (48.5%) 20 15 (75%) 178 81 (45.5%) 0.01
Palpable liver 198 16 (8.1%) 20 2 (10%) 178 14 (7.9%) 0.67a
Fluid accumulation 198 44 (22.2%) 20 4 (20%) 178 40 (22.5%) 1.00a
Bleed 198 49 (24.8%) 20 13 (65%) 178 36 (20.2%) < 0.0001a
Hct > 46 198 77 (38.9%) 20 10 (50%) 178 67 (37.6%) 0.28
Low Plt < 46 198 106 (53.5%) 20 15 (75%) 178 91 (51.1%) 0.04
Albumin < 34 198 106 (53.5%) 20 13 (65%) 178 93 (52.3%) 0.28
Number of warning signs 199   20   179   NSb
0   9 (4.5%)   0 (0%)   9 (5.03%)  
1   17 (8.5%)   0 (0%)   17 (9.5%)  
2   35 (17.6%)   2 (10%)   33 (18.4%)  
3   35 (17.6%)   4 (20%)   31 (17.3%)  
4   49 (24.6%)   6 (30%)   43 (24.0%)  
5   29 (14.6%)   2 (10%)   27 (15.1%)  
6   16 (8%)   3 (15%)   13 (7.3%)  
7   5 (2.5%)   0 (0%)   5 (2.8%)  
8   3 (1.5%)   2 (10%)   1 (0.6%)  
9   1 (0.5%)   1 (5%)   0 (0%)  
Presence of any warning signs 198 190 (95.5%) 20 20 (100%) 178 170 (95.0%) 1.00a
Severe dengue by type
 Decompensated shock   58 (29.1%)   10 (50%)   48 (26.8%)  
 Compensated shock   69 (34.7%)   4 (20%)   65 (36.3%)  
 Respiratory compromise   42 (21.1%)   2 (10%)   40 (22.3%)  
 Severe bleeding   24 (12.1%)   10 (50%)   14 (7.8%)  
 Severe hepatitis   40 (20.1%)   8 (40%)   32 (17.9%)  
 AKI   35 (17.6%)   8 (40%)   27 (15.1%)  
 Encephalitis   6 (3.0%)   2 (10%)   4 (2.2%)  
 Other   5 (2.5%)   1 (5%)   4 (2.2%)  
Number of types of severe dengue        NSb
 1   139 (69.8%)   12 (60%)   127 (70.9%)  
 2   53 (26.6%)   4 (20%)   49 (27.4%)  
 3   5 (2.5%)   3 (15%)   2 (1.1%)  
 4   2 (1.0%)   1 (5%)   1 (0.6%)  
Blood products given 198 57 (28.8%) 20 18 (90%) 178 39 (21.9%) < 0.0001
SBP, mmHg 198 103 (90–120) 20 98 (87–133) 178 103 (90–118) 0.88
DBP, mmHg 198 63 (53–74) 20 60.5 (48–84) 178 63 (54–74) 0.92
MAP, mmHg 198 77 (65–89) 20 74.3 (61–102) 178 77.3 (66–88) 0.96
PR, beats per minute 197 98 (86–110) 20 110 (102–120) 177 96 (86–109) 0.01
Shock Index, bpm/mmHg 197 1.2 (1.0–1.5) 20 1.3 (1.0–1.9) 177 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.25
RR, breaths/min 182 20 (18–24) 20 22 (19–30) 162 20(18–23) 0.07
WBC, ×103/μL 198 4.2 (2.9–5.7) 20 5.3 (2.7–8.4) 178 4.1 (2.9–5.6) 0.15
Hb, g/dL 198 14.2(12.3–16.2) 20 13.9 (11.7–17.1) 178 14.2 (12.3–16.1) 0.97
Hct, % 198 42 (37–47.0) 20 42.5 (31.0–49.5) 178 42 (37.0–47.0) 0.91
Platelet, × 103/μL 197 43 (16–97) 20 26 (8–41) 177 53 (18–105) 0.005
Serum creatinine, μmol/L 195 79 (63–101) 20 110 (67–333) 175 75 (63–97) 0.01
AST, U/L 184 165 (66–600) 19 1175 (123–1920) 165 152 (63–456) 0.01
ALT, U/L 192 104 (34–257) 20 365 (62–755) 172 95 (31–211) 0.01
Troponin T, ng/mL 17 0.02 (0.009–0.3) 6 0.4 (0.05–1.9) 11 0.009 (0.007–0.03) 0.10
Serum bicarbonate, mmol/L 192 21.1 (18.5–23.1) 20 16.2 (11.2–18.8) 172 21.5 (19.4–23.2) < 0.0001
Serum lactate, mmol/L 149 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 19 3.2 (2.1–6.5) 130 1.5 (1.1–2.1) < 0.0001
Nadir WBC, × 103/μL 198 2.7 (1.94–3.8) 20 2.6 (2.1–4.1) 178 2.7 (1.9–3.7) 0.47
Highest Hct, % 198 45.1 (40.9–49.0) 20 46.9 (41.0–50.2) 178 45.0 (40.9–49.0) 0.38
Nadir Platelet, × 103/μL 198 18 (7–44) 20 7 (2–21) 178 19 (8–45) 0.005
Highest serum creatinine, μmol/L 198 87 (69–112) 20 249 (175–378) 178 83 (68–102) < 0.0001
Highest AST, U/L 193 262 (100–1024) 20 4763 (658–21,547) 173 244 (98–589) < 0.0001
Highest ALT, U/L 197 147 (58–450) 20 1243 (243–3780) 177 117 (55–303) < 0.0001
Highest Troponin T, ng/mL 22 0.01 (0.005–0.3) 5 0.7 (0.1–1.9) 17 0.01 (0.005–0.03) 0.07
Lowest Serum bicarbonate, mmol/L 195 19.5 (16.9–21.4) 20 8.5 (6.7–13.1) 175 19.9 (17.9–21.5) < 0.0001
Highest Serum lactate, mmol/L 189 1.9 (1.3–2.8) 20 16.0 (6.7–18.5) 169 1.8 (1.2–2.3) < 0.0001
Total fluids given, mL 193 6034 (3470–8707) 20 9808 (7184–16,692) 173 5610 (3307–8259) 0.0004
  1. n count of non-missing observations; aFisher’s exact test; bPost-hoc multiple comparisons tests using Scheffe’s method; IQR interquartile range, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive airway disease, BA bronchial asthma, DM diabetes mellitus, IHD ischemic heart disease, NS1 non-structural protein 1 antigen, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, MAP mean arterial pressure, PR pulse rate, RR respiratory rate, AST aspartate transaminase, ALT alanine transaminase, WBC white blood cell count, Hct hematocrit, AKI acute kidney injury, NS not significant