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Table 2 Study results

From: The global effect of maternal education on complete childhood vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Maternal education parameter # children whose mothers had education level # children who have received full vaccination schedule % children who received full vaccination schedule (1 d.p.) cOR for vaccination (2 d.p.)
Al-Sheikh et al. 1999a [17] Illiterate 27 22 81.5 1
Reads and writes 69 41 59.4 0.33
Primary 78 42 53.8 0.27
Intermediate 32 22 68.8 0.5
Secondary 53 29 54.7 0.27
Institute 43 27 62.8 0.38
College 23 12 52.2 0.25
Postgraduate 1 1 100 /
Al-Sheikh et al. 1999b [17] Illiterate 143 34 23.8 1
Reads and writes 121 34 28.1 1.25
Primary 50 10 20 0.8
Intermediate 5 2 40 2.14
Secondary 7 5 71.4 8.01
Institute 6 4 66.7 6.41
College 4 4 100 /
Postgraduate 0 / / /
Animaw et al. 2014 [24] None 262 150 57.3 1.00
Primary 252 211 83.8 3.84
High school 116 100 86.2 4.66
Antai 2009 [4] No education 2155 169 7.8 1
Primary 805 142 17.6 2.52
Secondary or higher 771 194 25.2 3.95
Antai 2012 [20] No education 12,265 722 5.9 1
Primary school 5724 1159 20.2 4.06
Secondary school or higher 6921 2402 34.7 8.50
Bbaale et al. 2013 [25] No education 1824 967 53.0 1.00
Primary 4686 2484 53.0 1.00
Secondary 896 520 58.0 1.23
Post-secondary 185 117 63.2 1.52
Branco et al. 2014 [26] 0–8 years of schooling 151 116 76.8 1.00
>8 years of schooling 130 117 90 2.72
Brenner et al. 2001 [27] <12 years 145 55a 38 1
≥12 years 179 77a 43 1.23
Calhoun et al. 2014 [28] 0–7 years of schooling 132 35 26.5 1.00
≥8 years of schooling 23 11 47.8 2.54
Chhabra et al. 2007 [29] Nil 378b 130 34.4 1
1–8 years 106b 51 48.1 1.77
>8 years 209b 106 50.7 1.96
Danis et al. 2010 [18] <9 years 536 278 51.9 1
9–11 years 429 240 55.9 1.18
12 years (high school) 1336 859 64.3 1.67
College/ university graduate 985 670 68 1.97
Elliott et al. 2006a [30] Illiterate 332b 240 72.3 1
Literate 139b 123 88.5 2.95
Elliott et al. 2006b [30] Illiterate 318b 210 66 1
Literate 127b 113 89 4.15
Elliott et al. 2006c [30] Illiterate 139b 73 52.5 1
Literate 49b 35 71.4 2.26
Fatiregun et al. 2012 [31] Primary/ secondary 297 76 25.6 1
Post secondary 228 94 41.2 2.04
Fatiregun et al. 2013 [32] None 129 24 18.6 1.00
Primary 468 128 27.4 1.65
Secondary 523 225 43.0 3.30
Tertiary 58 51 87.9 31.88
Huq et al. 2008 [33] Below primary 485 307a 63.3 1
Secondary 221 164a 74.2 1.67
Higher secondary 49 46a 93.9 8.92
Jahn et al. 2008 [34] <5 years primary 237 140 59.1 1
Primary 5 + years 1364 903 66.2 1.36
Sec./tert. 304 233 76.6 2.27
Kidane et al. 2003 [35] Illiterate 92 66 71.7 1
Literate 18 17 94.4 6.70
Koumaré et al. 2009 [36] Mother not educated 639 376a 58.8 1
Mother educated 111 73a 65.8 1.35
Kumar et al. 2010 [37] ≤primary 223 12 5.4 1
>primary 92 46 50.0 17.58
Luman et al. 2003 [38] <High school 3157 2147a 68.0 1
High school 7160 5191a 72.5 1.24
>High school 4375 3233a 73.9 1.33
College graduate 8698 6915a 79.5 1.82
Mohamud et al. 2014 [39] Illiterate 510 167 32.7 1.00
Litterate 72 46 63.9 3.63
Odusanya et al. 2008 [40] None/ primary 107 57 53.3 1
Secondary/ university 232 153 65.9 1.70
Okoro et al. 2014 [41] No formal education 12 7 58.3 1.00
Primary 33 16 48.5 0.67
Secondary 55 36 65.5 1.35
Post-secondary 28 24 85.7 4.29
University 40 32 80.0 2.86
Pati et al. 2011 [42] Less than high school 159 63 39.6 1
High school 119 55 46.2 1.31
More than high school 228 101 44.3 1.21
Phukan et al. 2008 [43] Illiterate 132 50 37.9 1
Primary 81 41 50.6 1.68
Middle 344 242 70.3 3.89
Higher 59 50 84.7 9.11
Robert et al. 2014a [44] Maximum secondary level 293 237 80.8 1.00
Higher than secondary level 214 177 82.9 1.13
Robert et al. 2014b [44] Maximum secondary level 296 242 81.6 1.06
Higher than secondary level 233 197 84.4 1.29
Rossi et al. 2015 [45] No education or primary 320 177 55.2 1.00
Secondary or higher 711 500 70.3 1.91
Schoeps et al. 2013 [46] None 1435 250 17.4 1.00
Any 230 57 24.8 1.56
Setse et al. 2006 [47] Less than 7 years 137 92a 67c 1
7 years 114 87a 76c 1.56
Greater than 7 years 121 105a 87c 3.30
Sia et al. 2009 [5] No schooling 850 172a 20.2 1
Primary or secondary school 48 18a 37.5 2.37
Singh et al. 2000 [48] Illiterate 7337 3404a 46.4 1
Primary 2946 1912a 64.9 2.14
Middle 3044 2143a 70.4 2.75
Higher secondary 3433 2705a 78.8 4.29
Graduate 2023 1705a 84.3 6.20
Singh et al. 2001 [49] Illiterate 3421 1143a 33.4 1
Primary 900 496a 55.1 2.45
Middle 718 442a 61.5 3.19
Higher secondary 580 416a 71.8 5.08
Graduate 552 442a 80 7.98
Som et al. 2010 [50] Can’t read and write 400 151a 37.8 1
Can read and write 879 538a 61.2 2.60
Streatfield et al. 1990 [51] Not literate 78 35a 45.1 1
Some primary 129 40a 31.1 0.55
Complete primary 177 59a 33.6 0.62
Secondary school 81 44a 54.9 1.48
Thang et al. 2007 [52] Illiterate 33 13a 39.5 1
Lower primary 74 37a 50 1.53
Completed primary 157 100a 63.5 2.66
Completed secondary 122 94a 77.4 5.25
Completed high school + 83 69 a 82.9 7.43
Torun et al. 2006 [53] Illiterate 31b 15 48.4 1
Graduated primary school 157b 141 89.8 9.4
Graduated secondary school or higher education 33b 31 93.9 16.53
Waters et al. 2004a [54] Less than primary school 438 105a 24 1
Primary school 603 235a 39 2.02
Secondary education 473 246a 52 3.43
Higher education 12 8a 67 6.43
Waters et al. 2004b [54] Less than primary school 961 202a 21 1
Primary school 1137 387a 34 1.94
Secondary education or higher education 840 403a 48 3.47
Yadav et al. 2004 [55] Illiterate 835d 407a 48.7 1
Primary 241 180a 74.8 3.13
Middle 190 142a 74.9 3.14
Hr. Secondary 119 93a 78.2 3.78
Graduate 96 77a 80.2 4.27
  1. d.p. = decimal places
  2. a Number of children fully vaccinated calculated using available data in the paper (i.e. % uptake x total number of children)
  3. b Total number of children per maternal education level calculated from adding row total
  4. c Reverse percentage calculated from data in paper (percentage incompletely vaccinated presented)
  5. d Number of children with an illiterate mother calculated from deducting number in other levels from total population size