You are viewing the site in preview mode

Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Study characteristics

From: The global effect of maternal education on complete childhood vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Country Study setting Study design Study period Population Children’s age Vaccine type Maternal education parameter Quality
Al-Sheikh et al. 1999a [17] Iraq Urban Cross-sectional 1989–1994 341 families (186 urban), 662 children (326 urban) 0–2 years BCG, DPT-OPV(3), measles, MMR, DPT-OPV(1st booster) Illiterate; Reads and writes; Primary; Intermediate; Secondary; Institute; College; Postgraduate Weak
Al-Sheikh et al. 1999b [17] Iraq Rural Cross-sectional 1989–1994 341 families (155 rural), 662 children (336 rural) 0–2 years Completion of BCG, DPT-OPV(3), measles, MMR, DPT-OPV(1st booster) Illiterate; Reads and writes; Primary; Intermediate; Secondary; Institute; College; Postgraduate
Animaw et al., 2014 [24] Ethiopia Region Cross-sectional March 2013 630 children 12–23 months 1 dose BCG, 3 doses Polio, 3 doses Pentavalant, 3 doses PCV, 1 dose Measles None; Primary school; High school Moderate
Antai 2009 [4] Nigeria National Cross-sectional 2003 Interviews from 3725 women aged 15 to 49 years with 6029 live born children 12 months and older BCG, Polio (3), DPT (3) and Measles vaccinations No education; Primary; Secondary or higher Moderate
Antai 2012 [20] Nigeria National Cross-sectional 2008 24,910 women aged 15–49 years with live-born children within 5 years before the survey 12 months to 5 years 8 childhood vaccinations in the EPI – BCG, DPT 3 doses, OPV 3 doses, and measles vaccine No education; Primary school; Secondary school or higher Moderate
Bbaale et al. 2013 [25] Uganda National Cross-sectional 2006 7591 children 12–36 months Full vaccination, BCG, DPT, Polio, Measles vaccinations None, primary, secondary, post-secondary Moderate
Branco et al. 2014 [26] Brazil Urban Cross-sectional January 2010 282 children 12–59 months 1 dose BCG, 3 doses Hep B, 3 doses DTP-Hib, 3 doses OPV, 2 doses Rotavirus, 1 dose Yellow fever, 1 dose MMR 0–8 years of schooling; >8 years of schooling Moderate
Brenner et al. 2001 [27] USA Urban Cohort August 1995 to September 1996 369 singleton births from 3 hospitals from low-income, inner-city patients Cohort followed until 7 months UTD at 7 months if had received 3 DTP, 3 HIB, and 2 polio vaccinations <12 years; ≥12 years Strong
Calhoun et al. 2014 [28] Kenya Region Cross-sectional June–July 2003 244 children 12–23 months 3 doses Polio, 1 dose BCG, 1 dose Measles, 3 doses DPT or pentavalent Years of schooling: 0–8, 8 or more Moderate
Chhabra et al. 2007 [29] India Urban Cross-sectional October 2003 to January 2004 693 children 24–47 months BCG, DPT and OPV (3 primary and booster), measles and MMR Nil; 1–8 years; >8 years Moderate
Danis et al. 2010 [18] Greece National Cross-sectional Academic year 2004–2005 3609 parent/ guardian-child pairs 3434 pairs in the final analysis. Children in first year of Greek grammar school 6–7 years (Mean age 6.76 years) 5 doses of DTP vaccine, 5 doses of poliomyelitis vaccine, 2 doses of MMR vaccine, 3 doses of HBV vaccine and full vaccination for Hib <9 years; 9–11 years; 12 years (high school); College/ university graduate Moderate
Elliott et al. 2006a [30] India Rural Cross-sectional September 2003 470 families 9 months BCG, OPV (4), DPT (3) and measles Illiterate; Literate Weak
Elliott et al. 2006b [30] India Rural Cross-sectional September 2003 470 families 18 months BCG, OPV (5), DPT (4) and measles Illiterate; Literate
Elliott et al. 2006c [30] India Rural Cross-sectional September 2003 470 families 6 years BCG, OPV (5), DPT (4), measles and DT Illiterate; Literate
Fatiregun et al. 2012 [31] Nigeria Region Cross-sectional 2007 540 interviews, 525 respondents mothers of children 12–23 months BCG, dose of measles, three doses (1,2,3) of DPT, four doses (0–3) of OPV Primary/ secondary; Post secondary Moderate
Fatiregun et al. 2013 [32] Nigeria Region Cross-sectional 2006 1178 mothers 12–23 months BCG, 4 doses OPV, 3 doses DPT, 3 doses Hetaptitis B Tertiary education; Secondary education; Primary education; None Moderate
Huq et al. 2008 [33] Bangladesh National Cross-sectional 1999–2000 755 children 12–23 months BCG and measles vaccinations and all 3 doses of the DPT and polio vaccines Below primary; Secondary; Higher secondary Moderate
Jahn et al. 2008 [34] Malawi Rural Cross-sectional 21st August 2002 to 22nd July 2004 5418 children Under 5 years old BCG, OPV3, DPT3 and measles vaccine before their 1st birthday <5 years primary; Primary 5 + years; Sec./tert. Moderate
Kidane et al. 2003 [35] Ethiopia Region Cross-sectional 2000 220 households 12–23 months BCG, measles, 3 doses of DPT/OPV Illiterate; Literate Weak
Koumaré et al. 2009 [36] Mali Region Cross-sectional July 2006 750 children 12–23 months BCG, DTCP1, DTCP2, and DTCP3 and measles Mother not educated; Mother educated Weak
Kumar et al. 2010 [37] India Hospital/ Urban Cross-sectional April to July 2007 325 children (148 males, 177 females) admitted to paediatrics ward at a tertiary care hospital 12–60 months BCG, 3 doses of DPT/OPV and measles ≤primary; >primary Weak
Luman et al. 2003 [38] USA National Cross-sectional July 2000– June 2001 21,212 children 19 to 35 months 4 doses of DPT vaccine, 3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, 1 dose of MMR vaccine, 3 or 4 doses of Hib vaccine, and 3 doses of HBV vaccine (the 4:3:1:3:3 series). <High school; High school; >High school; College graduate Moderate
Mohamud et al. 2014 [39] Ethiopia Region Cross-sectional 10 April 2011–5 May 2011 582 households 12–23 months 1 dose BCG, 1 dose Measles, 3 doses pent/OPV before 1 year of age Illiterate; Literate Moderate
Odusanya et al. 2008 [40] Nigeria Rural Cross-sectional September 2006 339 mothers and children 12–23 months BCG, 3 doses of OPV & DTP, 3 doses of HBV and measles vaccine None/ primary; Secondary/ university Moderate
Okoro et al. 2014 [41] Nigeria Region Cross-sectional May to December 168 children 6 months – 5 years Full schedule (not specified) No formal education; Primary; Secondary; Post-secondary; University Moderate
Pati et al. 2011 [42] USA Urban Cohort June 15th 2005 to August 6th 2006 506 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads Cohort followed until 7 months UTD at 7 months if received 3 HepB, 2 polio, at least 2 Hib, 3 PCV7 and 3 DTaP containing vaccines Less than high school; High school; More than high school Moderate
Phukan et al. 2008 [43] India Region Cross-sectional June and July 2003 616 children 12–23 months 6 EPI vaccines in time Illiterate; Primary; Middle; Higher Weak
Robert et al. 2014a [44] Belgium Region Cross-sectional 2012 519 children 18–24 months Hexavalent, pneumococcal, MMR, meningococcal C Maximum secondary level; Higher than secondary level Moderate
Robert et al. 2014b [44] Belgium Region Cross-sectional 2012 538 children 18–24 months Hexavalent, pneumococcal, MMR, meningococcal C Maximum secondary level; Higher than secondary level
Rossi et al. 2015 [45] Zimbabwe National Cross-sectional 2010–2011 1031 children 12–23 months 1 dose BCG, 1 dose Measles, 3 doses of Polio, 3 doses DPT/Pentavalent No education or primary; Secondary or higher Moderate
Schoeps et al. 2013 [46] Burkina Faso Region Cross-sectional September 2008 – December 2009 1665 children 12–23 months BCG, Oral Polio, Pentavalent, yellow fever, measles Any; None Moderate
Setse et al. 2006 [47] Zambia Hospital/ Urban Cross-sectional January 1998 and October 2000 473 children hospitalised with measles- 372 in subgroup analysis 4 and 60 months BCG and completed the series of DTP and OPV vaccines. Less than 7 years; 7 years; Greater than 7 years Moderate
Sia et al. 2009 [5] Burkina Faso Rural Cross-sectional 1998 805 children 12–23 months BCG, measles, yellow fever vaccines and 3 doses of DTP and OPV No schooling; Primary or secondary school Moderate
Singh et al. 2000 [48] India National Cross-sectional June–October 1999 18,783 children 12–23 months BCG, DPT, OPV, Measles Illiterate; Primary; Middle; Higher secondary; Graduate Weak
Singh et al. 2001 [49] India Region Cross-sectional June–October 1999 6171 children 12–32 months BCG, DPT, OPV, Measles Illiterate; Primary Middle; Higher secondary; Graduate Weak
Som et al. 2010 [50] India Region Cross-sectional 2002 to 2004 1279 children 12–35 months BCG, 3 injections of DPT, 3 doses of polio (excluding polio 0) and 1 of measles Can’t read and write; Can read and write Moderate
Streatfield et al. 1990 [51] Indonesia Rural Cross-sectional 1989 519 mother-child dyads Under the age of 5 years DPT, BCG, and anti-polio Not literate; Some primary; Complete primary; Secondary school Weak
Thang et al. 2007 [52] Vietnam National Cross-sectional 2002 468 children 11–23 months BCG vaccination 3 doses of DPT vaccine; at least 3 doses of polio vaccine; and 1 dose of measles vaccine Illiterate; Lower primary; Completed primary; Completed secondary; Completed high school + Moderate
Torun et al. 2006 [53] Turkey Region Cross-sectional 2005 Parents of 221 children 9 month-6 years of age <18 months completely vaccinated if had 1 dose of BCG, 3 doses of HBV, OPV and DPT and 1 dose of Measles vaccine. >18 months completely vaccinated if had booster doses for OPV and DPT vaccines Illiterate; Graduated primary school; Graduated secondary school or higher education Moderate
Waters et al. 2004a [54] Cameroon National Cross-sectional 1998 2123 children Younger than 3 years By 6 weeks- 1st dose of DPT and the 2nd dose of polio vaccine; By 10 weeks- 2nd dose of DPT and the 3rd dose of polio vaccine; By 14 weeks- 3rd DPT dose; By 9 months- measles vaccine Less than primary school; Primary school; Secondary education; Higher education Moderate
Waters et al. 2004b [54] Cameroon National Cross-sectional 2000 3582 children Younger than 5 years Less than primary school; Primary school Secondary education or higher education
Yadav et al. 2004 [55] India Regional Cross-sectional June–October 1999 1481 children 12–23 months BCG, DPT3, OPV3, Measles Illiterate; Primary; Middle; Hr. Secondary; Graduate Weak
  1. Abbreviations: UTD up to date, EPI Expanded Program on Immunization, OPV oral polio vaccine, BCG bacille Calmette-Guérin (tuberculosis) vaccine, DPT diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus vaccine, Hib haemophilus influenzae type b, HBV hepatitis B virus, MMR measles, mumps & rubella vaccine, DT diphtheria and tetanus, PCV7 pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7-valent), DTaP diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis vaccine, DTCP diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis vaccine