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Table 4 Design outcomes and corresponding research question

From: Mathematical models used to inform study design or surveillance systems in infectious diseases: a systematic review

Design outcomes References by main research questions
Follow-up Determine appropriate time point to estimate a parameter: Mizumoto [24]; Lipsitch [29]; Wu [30]; Scott [37]; Herzog [38]; Hallett [32]
Timing of sampling Determine appropriate time point to estimate a parameter: Mizumoto [24]; Lipsitch [29]; Wu [30]; Scott [37]; Herzog [38]; Hallett [32]
Frequency Detect infection early: Graat [16]; Michael [17]; Gonzales [22] Estimate epidemiological parameters: Pinsent [25]; Vinh [27] Compare different trial arms: Wu [30]
Number Detect infection early: Gonzales [22] Compare different trial arms: Wu [30]
Monitoring Detect infection early: Michael [17]; Savill [18] Follow trial progression: Cori [35]; Scott [37]
Sample size Detect infection early: Graat [16]; Michael [17]; Arnold [19]; Smieszek [20]; Ciccolini [21]; Gonzales [22]; Leslie [23]; van Bunnik [26] Estimate epidemiological parameters: Atlas [28]; Pinsent [25]; Vinh [27] Compare different trial arms: Wu [30]; Hallett [32]; Dimitrov [33], Nishiura [34]; Herzog [38]
Whom Detect infection early: Arnold [19]; Smieszek [20]; Ciccolini [21]; Leslie [23]; van Bunnik [26] Include potentially good responders in a RCT: Clermont [31]
Power Estimate epidemiological parameters: Vinh [27] Compare different trial arms: Wu [30]; Hallett [32]; Dimitrov [33]; Nishiura [34]; Cori [35]; Cuadros [36]; Herzog [38] Detect changes in infection values over time: Michael [17]