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Table 1 Micro-habitat variables used to predict the presence of all bank voles and infected bank voles in 58 1-ha plots in fall 2003–2013 and to validate the models in an independent area (+) (17 plots in 2007–2010 and 2015)

From: Spatial prediction and validation of zoonotic hazard through micro-habitat properties: where does Puumala hantavirus hole – up?

Variable Explanation Measure Availability in validation data
Shrubs Shrub layer 0.5–5 m in height 5 graded scale +
Lholes All large holes >5 cm in diameter 6 number classes +
Stoneholes Only holes under stones 6 number classes
FWD Fine woody debris <10 cm 5 graded scale +
CWD Coarse woody debris Total length +
Cobbles Stones between 10 and 50 cm in diameter 5 graded scale +
Lcobbles Stones >50 cm in diameter 5 graded scale
Uveg Vegetation cover >50 cm 5 graded scale +
Flveg Vegetation in field layer ≤50 cm 5 graded scale +
Grasses Grass cover 5 graded scale +
Lichens Cover of ground lichens 5 graded scale +
Mosses Cover of ground and stone mosses 5 graded scale +
Bilberry Cover of bilberry 5 graded scale +
Lingon Cover of lingonberry 5 graded scale +
Spruce Cover of spruce trees % +
Pine Cover of pine trees % +
Birch Cover of pine trees % +
Tl1 Upper tree layer (≥ 5 m) 5 graded scale +
Tl2 Lower tree layer (< 5 m) 5 graded scale +
  1. For the independent validation data, data on large cobbles and stone holes was not available (−). See also Additional file 1 for more detailed description of the variables and their estimation