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Table 6 Patients’ characteristics and baseline parameters with and without cultivated multidrug-resistant organisms

From: The role of Enterococcus spp. and multidrug-resistant bacteria causing pyogenic liver abscesses

Characteristics Patient with MDRO isolates (n = 21) Patient without MDRO isolates (n = 52)a P
Age, y 61 (52–71) 63 (52–73) 0.812
Duration of hospitalization, days 20 (13–37) 19 (10–32) 0.425
Biliary cause of PLA, n (%) 16 (76.2) 32 (61.5) 0.284
Malignancy, n (%) 7 (33.3) 22 (42.3) 0.600
Liver cirrhosis, n (%) 4 (19.0) 8 (15.4) 0.734
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 4 (19.0) 16 (30.8) 0.392
Cholangitis, n (%) 14 (66.7) 22 (42.3) 0.074
Intake of immunosuppressants, n (%) 6 (28.6) 14 (26.9) 1.000
Intake of proton-pump inhibitors, n (%) 17 (81.0) 39 (75.0) 0.762
Previous known MDRO, n (%) 12 (57.1) 3 (5.8) <0.0001
Previous admission <3 month, n (%) 20 (95.2) 44 (84.6) 0.432
Previous ICU admission <3 month, n (%) 7 (33.3) 10 (19.2) 0.229
Previous surgical/endoscopic Intervention
 Previous endoscopic Intervention, n (%) 17 (81.0) 33 (63.5) 0.174
 Previous ERCP/PTCD, n (%) 17 (81.0) 28 (53.8) 0.036
 ERCP/PTCD <3 month, n (%) 17 (81.0) 25 (48.1) 0.017
 Laid-in biliary stent, n (%) 14 (66.7) 22 (42.3) 0.074
 History of abdominal surgery, n (%) 15 (71.4) 29 (55.8) 0.293
 Abdominal surgery <6 month, n (%) 9 (42.9) 18 (34.6) 0.023
Prior antibiotic therapyb
 Any antibiotic therapy, n (%) 15 (78.9) 26 (55.3) 0.096
 Glycopeptide based, n (%) 7 (36.8) 4 (8,5) 0.010
 Carbapenem based, n (%) 10 (52.6) 12 (25.5) 0.046
 Piperacillin/Tazobactam, n (%) 4 (21.1) 4 (8.5) 0.213
Laboratory results
 C-reactive protein (mg/dl) 9.78 (6.9–15.2) 11.28 (8.6–20.8) 0.453
 White blood count (/nl) 10.4 (7.5–15.6) 11.6 (7.7–16.4) 0.943
 International normalized ratio 1.2 (1.1–1.4) 1.3 (1.2–1.4) 0.165
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.91 (0.62–1.20) 0.79 (0.58–0.95) 0.352
 Albumin (g/dl) 2.6 (2.2–2.9) 2.8 (2.2–3.1) 0.500
 Aspartate aminotransferase (U/l) 69 (35–106) 42 (24–113) 0.328
 Alanine aminotransferase (U/l) 40 (25–64) 34 (18–84) 0.933
 γ-Glutamyltransferase (U/l) 281 (136–441) 199 (93–458) 0.371
 Alkaline phosphatase (UI/l) 282 (196–401) 226 (133–425) 0.247
 Bilirubin (mg/dl) 1.0 (0.5–4.9) 1.0 (0.6–3.4) 0.981
  1. Data are presented as media (IQR) unless otherwise indicated
  2. Abbreviations: ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, PTCD percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and drainage
  3. aPatients without resistance profile of bacterial isolates or without bacterial isolates were excluded
  4. bDefined as ≥72 h antibiotic therapy before given cultures were attempted, overall n = 66