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Table 3 Bivariate analysis of independent factors associated with Hepatitis E Virus in Napak, 2013/2014

From: Risk factors, person, place and time characteristics associated with Hepatitis E Virus outbreak in Napak District, Uganda

Variable Cases Controls Odds Ratio P-value
  N = 107(%) N = 214(%) (95%CI)  
Male Sex 37 (34.6) 104 (48.6) 0.54 (0.3–0.87) 0.017*
Female not pregnant 19 (27.1) 33 (30.0) 1.55 (0.65–3.43) 0.337
Dry season 68 (63.5) 150 (70.1) 1.49 (0.83–2.52) 0.188
Live in rural setting 94 (87.8) 194 (90.6) 1.00 (0.28–3.50) 1.000
Education level
 None 78 (72.9) 172 (80.4) 1.0  
 Primary 19 (17.7) 30 (14.0) 1.46 (0.75–2.85) 0.263
 Secondary 7 (6.5) 9 (4.2) 2.32 (0.65–8.29) 0.193
 Tertiary 3 (2.8) 3 (1.4) 2.53 (0.49–3.14) 0.267
Unsanitary (Open defecation) habits 77 (71.9) 111 (51.9) 2.46 (1.47–4.12) 0.001*
Drunk alcohol 2 weeks before outbreak. 80 (74.7) 151 (70.5) 1.24 (0.73–2.21) 0.420
No soap in the household. 56 (52.3) 89 (42.6) 1.59 (0.98–2.59) 0.060
Never wash hands with soap after defecation. 50 (46.7) 70 (35.0) 1.64 (1.01–2.65) 0.043*
Clean hands with soap before eating 69 (64.5) 141 (65.9) 0.93 (0.55–1.57) 0.789
Did not clean utensils after eating food. 70 (65.4) 94 (44.9) 2.72 (1.60–4.61) P < 0.001*
Drinking untreated water. 58 (54.2) 181 (84.5) 5.19 (2.82–9.54) P < 0.001*
Had contact with animals prior to epidemic. 61 (57.0) 132 (61.7) 0.81 (0.49–1.32) 0.402
Attended funerals 2 weeks before outbreak. 13 (16.6) 14 (9.2) 0.56 (0.55–3.02) 0.556
use the same basin for washing hands 42 (39.3) 75 (35.1) 1.24 (0.73–2.10) 0.420
Ate food from the roadside 43 (40.2) 39 (18.2) 2.88 (1.70–4.84) P < 0.001*
Primary source of water
 Tap water 19 (17.8) 49 (22.9) 1.0  
 Bore Hole 82 (76.6) 162 (75.7) 1.34 (0.69–2.58) 0.381
 Well 5 (4.7) 2 (1.0) 10.7 (1.15–98.5) 0.037*
 Dam 1 (1.0) 1(.5) 2.16 (0.13–34.9) 0.586
Household has no latrine 82 (76.6) 173 (80.4) 0.76 (0.42–1.37) 0.355
Have common bathing practices 59 (58.1) 124 (57.9) 1.16 (0.68–1.99) 0.587
Had recently travelled 27 (25.20) 30 (14.0) 2.04 (1.14–3.63) 0.016*
Did you own or have contacts with animals prior to the epidemic
 No 46 (43.0) 82 (38.3)   
 Yes 61 (57.0) 132 (61.7) 0.81 (0.49–1.32) 0.402
If yes which animals
 Pigs 3 (4.9) 9 (6.7) 1  
 Cows 24 (39.3) 38 (28.4) 1.59 (0.32–7.88) 0.570
 Goats 15 (24.6) 39 (29.1) 1.36 (0.24–7.67) 0.720
 Poultry 19 (31.1) 48 (35.8) 0.82 (0.18–3.70) 0.790
  1. *Significant P < 0.05.Univariate conditional logistics comparing cases and controls