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Table 2 Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression of the association between DNI and potential risk factors

From: End-stage renal disease: a risk factor of deep neck infection – a nationwide follow-up study in Taiwan

Variables Crude 95% CI p-value Adjusted 95% CI p-value
HR HR
ESRD vs Non-ESRD
 Non-ESRD 1.00    1.00   
 ESRD 2.09 (1.74–2.51) <0.001 2.23 (1.84–2.69) <0.001
Gender
 Male 1.00    1.00   
 Female 0.97 (0.81–1.17) 0.766 0.93 (0.77–1.12) 0.453
Age
  < 65 1.00    1.00   
  ≥ 65 1.04 (0.87–1.24) 0.692 1.12 (0.92–1.36) 0.283
Urbanized level
 1 (City) 1.00    1.00   
 2 1.03 (0.82–1.29) 0.799 1.03 (0.82–1.29) 0.829
 3 1.22 (0.93–1.60) 0.155 1.23 (0.93–1.62) 0.145
 4 (Village) 1.37 (1.01–1.87) 0.046 1.40 (1.02–1.93) 0.039
Income (NTD, per month)
 0 1.00    1.00   
 1–15,840 1.23 (0.92–1.64) 0.167 1.20 (0.89–1.61) 0.240
 15,841–25,000 1.06 (0.83–1.34) 0.645 0.96 (0.75–1.24) 0.773
  ≥ 25,001 0.82 (0.59–1.14) 0.242 0.76 (0.54–1.08) 0.125
Comorbidities
 DM 1.41 (1.17–1.70) <0.001 1.50 (1.24–1.82) <0.001
 HTN 1.57 (1.07–2.31) 0.020 1.57 (1.06–2.31) 0.025
 Autoimmune 1.06 (0.74–1.53) 0.750 1.07 (0.74–1.54) 0.732
 Liver cirrhosis 1.22 (0.87–1.71) 0.255 1.01 (0.72–1.43) 0.945
 CAD 0.97 (0.81–1.16) 0.751 0.79 (0.65–0.95) 0.014
 CVA 1.04 (0.86–1.26) 0.659 0.93 (0.76–1.13) 0.457
 COPD 0.90 (0.72–1.12) 0.323 0.88 (0.70–1.11) 0.291
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio
  2. Table 2 demonstrated the Cox regression mode investigating the risk factors for DNI after adjusting the multivariable. After adjustment, the ESRD had 2.23-fold risk for DNI (p < 0.001)