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Table 2 Risk factors for lower limb cellulitis in the Regional Hospital Bamenda, Cameroon, September 2015 to August 2016

From: Risk factors of lower limb cellulitis in a level-two healthcare facility in Cameroon: a case-control study

Risk factors No. (%) cases (n = 61) No. (%) controls (n = 122) OR (95% CI) p value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P value
Social factors
Marital status
 Married 40 (33.6) 79 (66.4) 1.0 (0.5–2.0) 0.524   
 Single 21 (32.8) 43 (67.2)   
Occupation
 Unemployed 33 (38.8) 52 (61.2) 0.6 (0.3–1.2) 0.142   
 Employed 28 (28.6) 70 (71.4)   
General factors
Obesity
 Yes 27 (56.3) 21 (43.7) 3.0 (1.5–6.0) 0.002 4.7 (1.5–14.7) 0.009
 No 34 (30.1) 79 (69.9)
History of diabetes
 Yes 13 (52.0) 12 (48.0) 2.5 (1.1–5.8) 0.033 0.9 (0.2–3.8) 0.846
 No 48 (30.4) 110 (69.6)
History of cellulitis
 Yes 3 (50.0) 3 (50.0) 2.1 (0.4–10.5) 0.379   
 No 58 (32.8) 119 (67.2)   
History of hypertension
 Yes 21 (44.7) 26 (55.3) 1.9 (1.0–3.8) 0.056 1.3 (0.4–3.7) 0.687
 No 40 (29.4) 96 (70.6)
History of HIV
 Yes 6 (21.4) 22 (78.6) 0.5 (0.2–1.4) 0.170   
 No 53 (34.6) 100 (65.4)   
Duration of HIV (years)
  ≥ 4 4 (23.5) 13 (76.5) 1.1 (0.2–7.4) 0.940   
  < 4 2 (22.2) 7 (77.8)   
CD4+ count (cells/mm3)
  < 200 1 (8.3) 11 (91.7) 0.2 (0.0–1.7) 0.099   
  ≥ 200 5 (35.7) 9 (64.3)   
Alcohol consumption
 Yes 25 (52.1) 23 (47.9) 3.0 (1.5–5.9) 0.001 2.4 (0.7–7.9) 0.152
 No 36 (26.7) 99 (73.3)
Alcohol misuseb
 Yes 16 (94.1) 1 (5.9) 11.3 (1.3–98.3) <0.001 - -
 No 9 (31.0) 20 (69.0)
History of smoking
 Yes 9 (47.4) 10 (52.6) 1.9 (0.7–5.1) 0.170   
 No 52 (31.7) 112 (68.3)   
Current smoker
 Yes 3 (30.0) 7 (70.0) 0.9 (0.2–3.5) 0.847   
 No 56 (32.9) 114 (67.1)   
Local factors
History of disruption of skin barriera
 Yes 33 (68.8) 15 (31.2) 8.4 (4.0–17.6) <0.001 12.4 (3.9–39.1) <0.001
 No 28 (20.7) 107 (79.3)
History of surgery to the lower limb
 Yes 9 (81.8) 2 (18.2) 10.4 (2.2–49.7) <0.001 4.6 (0.4–51.8) 0.212
 No 52 (30.2) 120 (69.8)
Presence of toe-web intertrigo
 Yes 37 (88.1) 5 (11.9) 34.5 (12.3–97.0) <0.001 51.4 (11.7–225.6) <0.001
 No 24 (17.6) 112 (82.4)
  1. n number of cases, OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval
  2. aAt most four weeks before onset of cellulitis
  3. bomitted from multivariate regression model due to multicollinearity