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Table 1 Description of clinical samples included in the ELISA evaluationa

From: An ELISA assay using a combination of recombinant proteins from multiple strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi offers an accurate diagnosis for scrub typhus

Diagnosis # of samples Case definition (# of samples)
Scrub typhusb 78 IgG or IgM or both ≥400 (61), or 4-fold increase in IgG or IgM titer between convalescent and acute specimens (6), or PCR positive onlyd (5), or PCR positive and 4-fold increase in titer (6)
Dengue 11 NS1, or IgG or IgM rapid test positive
Murine typhus 2 single IFA IgG and/or IgM titer ≥400, or a 4-fold increase in IgG or IgM titer
leptospirosis 16 single IFA IgG or IgM titer ≥400, or a 4-fold increase in titer of IgG or IgM, or positive PCR for LipL32
Other bacteremia 3 Bacteria culture positive
Co-infection (Scrub typhus and others)c 8 IgG or IgM ≥ 400 (7), 4-fold increase in IgG and IgM titer between convalescent and acute specimens (1)
unknown 130 Negative by all above
  1. aSamples were determined for the cause of infection using the criteria listed
  2. bFive different criteria were applied to determine scrub typhus positive. A sample is considered scrub typhus positive if it is positive by any of the 5 criteria. Numbers in parentheses represent number of cases defined by respective criterion
  3. cThe same criteria to identify scrub typhus positive were applied to co-infection samples
  4. dThe 47 kDa or 56 kDa gene was used as targets for PCR