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Table 3 Prevalence of symptoms and risk factors and their association with HIV-1 seroconversiona

From: Development and validation of a risk score to assist screening for acute HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men

Column 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Symptom Seroconversion visit n% HIV negative visit n% OR (95% CI) Symptom based model aOR (95% CI)b Beta coefficientc,d Combined model aOR (95% CI)e Beta coefficientc,f
Totalg 175 17,271      
Symptom
 Diarrhea 30 17.1 1011 5.9 3.3 (2.2–4.8) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 0.3 1.5 (0.9–2.4) 0.4
 Fatigue 42 24.0 1867 10.8 2.6 (1.8–3.6) 1.2 (0.8–1.9) 0.2 1.4 (0.9–2.2) 0.3
 Fever 76 43.4 1623 9.4 7.2 (5.4–9.8) 5.0 (3.5–7.1)h 1.6 4.7 (3.2–7.0)h 1.6
 Genital ulcers 11 6.3 324 1.9 3.5 (1.9–6.4) 2.6 (1.3–5.0)h 0.9 1.6 (0.6–4.0) 0.5
 Headache 18 10.3 980 5.7 1.9 (1.2–3.1) 0.7 (0.4–1.3) −0.3 0.8 (0.4–1.5) −0.2
 Lymphadenopathy 27 15.4 418 2.4 7.2 (4.7–10.9) 3.3 (2.1–5.4)h 1.2 4.4 (2.6–7.3)h 1.5
 Myalgia 25 14.3 869 5.0 3.1 (2.0–4.7) 1.1 (0.7–1.9) 0.1 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 0.3
 Nausea 18 10.3 526 3.1 3.6 (2.2–5.8) 0.8 (0.4–1.7) −0.2 0.9 (0.4–1.9) −0.1
 Night sweats 32 18.3 832 4.8 4.3 (3.0–6.4) 1.2 (0.8–2.0) 0.2 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 0.2
 Oral thrush 4 2.3 36 0.2 10.8 (3.8–30.7) 5.0 (1.5–16.3)h 1.6 5.6 (1.4–22.3)h 1.7
 Rash 11 6.3 564 3.3 2.0 (1.1–3.6) 1.2 (0.6–2.4) 0.2 0.6 (0.3–1.4) −0.5
 Sore throat 31 17.7 1316 7.6 2.6 (1.7–3.8) 1.0 (0.7–1.6) 0.0 0.9 (0.5–1.4) −0.2
 Vomiting 17 9.7 336 2.0 5.3 (3.2–8.8) 1.8 (0.9–3.8) 0.6 1.4 (0.6–3.3) 0.4
 Weight loss 11 6.3 205 1.2 5.5 (2.9–10.2) 1.9 (1.0–3.9) 0.7 2.4 (1.1–5.2)h 0.9
Risk factor
 Gonorrheai,j 12 6.9 181 1.1 6.5 (3.6–12.0)    4.9 (2.3–10.2)h 1.6
 Receptive CLAIi 97 55.4 5651 32.7 2.7 (2.0–3.7)    3.0 (2.1–4.2)h 1.1
 >5 sexual partnersi,k 100 57.1 7659 44.4 2.4 (1.7–3.4)    2.5 (1.7–3.6)h 0.9
  1. aOR adjusted odds ratio. CI confidence interval, CLAI condomless anal intercourse, OR odds ratio
  2. aIn Amsterdam Cohort Studies, based on imputed data using the last observation carried forward method
  3. b14 symptoms in column 1 were included in a multivariable logistic regression model using generalized estimating equations
  4. cNatural log of the adjusted odds ratio, rounded to one decimal
  5. dBased on the adjusted odds ratios of the symptom-based model (column 5)
  6. e14 symptoms and 3 risk factors in column 1 were included in a multivariable logistic regression model using generalized estimating equations
  7. fBased on the adjusted odds ratios of the combined symptom and risk factor model (column 7)
  8. gDue to missing values, the denominator of columns 2 and 3 are sometimes not equal to 175 respectively 17,271. Data missing for the following variables: fever, 1 missing; genital ulcers, 3 missings; gonorrhea, 2072 missings; receptive condomless anal intercourse, 162 missings; >5 sexual partners, 56 missings
  9. hSignificantly associated with HIV-1 seroconversion
  10. iIn the preceding 6 months
  11. jSelf-reported
  12. kOnly male sex partners, compared to ≤5 sexual partners