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Table 3 Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of potential risk factors associated with parasitic infection among children at Dona Berber first cycle primary school in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, 2015/2016

From: Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among students at Dona Berber primary school, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

Risk factors Categories Parasitic infection   Crude OR (CI 95%) Adjusted OR (CI 95%)#
Positive No (%) Negative No (%) Total No (%)
Family size Above 6 77 (79.4) 20 (20.6) 97 (27) 5.89 (2.69–12.9)** 3.62 (1.37–9.59)*
6 90 (73.2) 33 (26.8) 123 (34.3) 4.17 (2.01–8.66)** 4.90 (2.03–11.83)**
5 51 (53.1) 45 (46.9) 96 (26.7) 1.73 (0.83–3.60) 2.79 (1.14–6.85)*
Less than 5 17 (39.5)) 26 (60.5) 43 (12) 1.00 1.0
Family monthly income (ETB@) < 500 102 (82.9) 21 (17.1) 123 (34.3) 6.48 (2.42–17.3)** 1.94 (0.59–6.34)
500–2000 124 (57.7) 91 (42.3) 215 (59.9) 1.82 (0.74–4.49) 1.70 (0.59–4.93)
>2000 9 (42.9) 12 (57.1) 21 (5.8) 1.00 1.00
Father education Illiterate 81 (83.5) 16 (16.5) 97 (27) 9.00 (4.09–19.79)** 1.67 (0.52–5.39)
Primary school 109 (64.5) 60 (35.5) 169 (47.1) 3.23 (1.67–6.24)** 1.68 (0.66–4.25)
Secondary school 27 (62.8) 16 (37.2) 43 (12) 3.00 (1.29–6.99)* 1.23 (0.41–3.69)
Diploma and above 18 (36) 32 (64) 50 (13.9) 1.00 1.00
Mother education Illiterate 137 (77.4) 40 (22.6) 177 (49.3) 9.59 (3.26–28.24)** 1.88 (0.45–7.84)
Primary school 80 (58) 58 (42) 138 (38.4) 3.86 (1.32–11.32)* 1.23 (0.32–4.77)
Secondary school 13 (52) 12 (48) 25 (7) 3.03 (0.84–10.99) 1.46 (0.33–6.50)
Diploma and above 5 (26.3) 14 (73.7) 19 (5.3) 1.00 1.00
Drinking water source Well water 56 (88.9) 7 (11.1) 63 (17.6) 5.64 (2.48–12.82)** 2.84 (1.09–7.45)*
River 20 (80) 5 (20) 25 (7) 2.82 (1.03–7.73) 1.00 (0.30–3.36)
Tape water 159 (58.7) 112 (41.3) 271 (75.5) 1.00 1.00
Hand washing habit Sometimes 118 (80.8) 28 (19.2) 146 (40.7) 3.46 (2.11–5.66)** 2.33 (1.29–4.19)**
Always 117 (54.9) 96 (45.1) 213 (59.3) 1.00 1.00
Shoe wearing habit Not at all 19 (95) 1 (5) 20 (5.6) 16.73 (2.20–127.4)* 7.80 (0.88–69.39)
Sometimes 107 (79.9) 27 (20.1) 134 (37.3) 3.49 (2.11–5.77)** 2.85 (1.53–5.32)**
Always 109 (53.2) 9646.8) 205 (57.1) 1.00 1.00
Fingernail cleanness Not clean 108 (86.4) 17 (13.6) 125 (34.8) 5.35 (3.02–9.49)** 3.68 (1.87–7.26)**
Clean 127 (54.3) 107 (45.7) 234 (65.2) 1.00 1.00
Toilet availability Not available 60 (89.6) 7 (10.4) 67 (18.7) 0.17 (0.07–0.40)** 0.74 (0.27–2.04)
Available 175 (59.9) 117 (40.1 292 (81.3) 1.00 1.00
Sex of students Female 115 (63.2) 67 (36.8) 182 (50.7) 0.82 (0.53–1.26) -
Male 120 (67.8) 57 (32.2) 177 (49.3) 1.00  
Age (years) 7–8 70 (68.6) 32 (31.4) 102 (28.4) 1.09 (0.55–2.18) -
9–10 74 (65.5) 39 (34.5) 113 (31.5) 0.95 (0.48–1.86) -
11–12 53 (60.9) 34 (39.1) 87 (24.2) 0.78 (0.39–1.57) -
13–14 38 (66.7) 19 (33.3) 57 (15.9) 1.00  
Grade 1 70 (68.6) 32 (31.4) 102 (28.4) 1.49 (0.81–2.75) -
2 61 (65.6) 32 (34.4) 93 (25.9) 1.29 (0.70–2.41) -
3 57 (67.1) 28 (32.9) 85 (23.7) 1.39 (0.73–2.62) -
4 47 (59.5) 32 (40.5) 79 (22) 1.00  
Religion Muslim 5 (55.6) 4 (44.4) 9 (2.5) 0.78 (0.14–4.39) -
Orthodox 222 (65.9) 115 (34.1) 337 (93.9) 1.21 (0.39–3.77) -
Protestant 8 (61.5) 5 (38.5) 13 (3.6) 1.00  
  1. Not: *= p < 0.05, **= p < 0.01, #= adjusted (multivariate regression model) for family size, family income, drinking water source, shoe wearing habit, finger nail cleanness, hand washing habit before meal, toilet availability, mother and father education, @= Ethiopian birr.