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Table 2 Proportion of CD8 + CD38 + HLA-DR+ and CD4+ CD38 + HLA-DR+ T cell subsets in HIV-infected individuals with either primary HIV infection or chronic HIV infection before and after initiation of cART

From: Tryptophan catabolism and immune activation in primary and chronic HIV infection

   Primary HIV infection N = 14 Early presenters N = 24 Late presenters N = 19 Healthy Controls N = 16 P
% Cells CD8 + CD38 + HLA-DR+
Baseline 44.7 (20.3)a,b,d 22.0 (13.4)b,c,f 25.6 (21.3)a,c,e 1.3 (0.8)d,e,f <.001
 After 6 months of cART 6.4 (5.6)d 8.1 (5.5)f 6.5 (5.3)e NA <.001
 After 12 months of cART 8.9 (8.1)d 4.0 (1.9)f 4.7 (2.8)e NA <.001
 CD4 + CD38 + HLA-DR+
Baseline 5.5 (4.08)a,d 3.5 (3.0)c,f 15.5 (15.4)a,c,e 0.8 (0.6)d,e,f <.001
 After 6 months of cART 1.6 (1.4)d 1.6 (1.3)f 3.3 (3.4)e NA <.001
 After 12 months of cART 1.6 (0.7)d 1.1 (0.3) 2.4 (1.7)e NA <.001
  1. Data are shown as mean (SD)
  2. P*: comparing the four groups by using ANOVA if parametric variables or Kruksal-Wallis test if non parametric variables. If significant (<0.05) then t-test if parametric variables or Mann-Whitney if non parametric variables were used to compare two groups. Only significant differences are marked:
  3. aprimary HIV infection vs late presenters
  4. bprimary HIV infection vs early presenters
  5. clate presenters vs early presenters
  6. dhealthy controls vs primary HIV infection
  7. ehealthy controls vs late presenters
  8. fhealthy controls vs early presenters