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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the study sample

From: Antimicrobial consumption, costs and resistance patterns: a two year prospective study in a Romanian intensive care unit

Characteristic Value 95% CI
Patients (N1 = 1596)
 Mean age [years] 60.21 59.33–61.08
 Male [n (%)] 959 (60.09) 57.6–62.5
 Female [n (%)] 637 (39.91) 37.5–42.4
Hospital admissions (N2 = 1696)
 Non-infectious pathology [n (%)] - SI 697 (41.09) 38.7–43.5
 Community acquired infections [n (%)] - SII 344 (20.28) 18.4–22.3
 Non-infectious pathology complicated by HAI [n (%)] - SIII 609 (35.91) 33.6–38.3
 CAI complicated by HAI [n (%)] - SIV 46 (2.71) 2.0–3.6
 Average no. days of hospital stay [days] 9.20 8.61–9.79
 Deaths [n (%)] 766 (45.16) 42.8–47.6
 Improved evolution [n (%)] 857 (50.53) 48.1–52.9
 Stationary evolution [n (%)] 52 (3.06) 2.3–4.0
 Aggravated evolution [n (%)] 20 (1.18) 0.7–1.9
 Transferred cases [n (%)] 1 (0.06) 0.0–0.4
 Average no. days of antimicrobial drugs treatment [days] 6.59 6.20–6.99
 Number of administered antimicrobial drugs [no.] 1.85 1.78–1.92
Biological samples (N3 = 1291)
 Bronchial aspirate [n (%)] 532 (41.21) 38.5–44.0
 Blood [n (%)] 285 (22.07) 19.9–24.5
 Urine [n (%)] 167 (12.93) 11.2–14.9
 Wound secretion [n (%)] 116 (8.98) 7.5–10.7
 Catheter tip [n (%)] 90 (6.97) 5.7–8.5
 Peritoneal fluid [n (%)] 32 (2.48) 1.7–3.5
 Pus [n (%)] 25 (1.93) 1.3–2.9
 Cerebrospinal fluid [n (%)] 14 (1.08) 0.6–1.9
 Other [n (%)] 30 (2.32) 1.6–3.3
Isolated strains of species/genera – after excluding duplicates (N4 = 1322)
Staphylococcus aureus [n (%)] 241 (18.23) 16.2–20.5
Klebsiella pneumoniae [n (%)] 220 (16.64) 14.7–18.8
Escherichia coli [n (%)] 138 (10.43) 8.9–12.3
Pseudomonas aeruginosa [n (%)] 137 (10.36) 8.8–12.2
Proteus mirabilis [n (%)] 136 (10.28) 8.7–12.1
Acinetobacter baumannii [n (%)] 134 (10.13) 8.6–11.9
Candida albicans [n (%)] 100 (7.56) 6.2–9.1
 Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus [n (%)] 85 (6.43) 5.2–7.9
Providencia stuartii [n (%)] 23 (1.73) 1.1–2.6
Proteus spp. [n (%)] 22 (1.66) 1.1–2.6
Enterobacter cloacae [n (%)] 17 (1.28) 0.8–2.1
Enterococcus faecalis [n (%)] 12 (0.91) 0.5–1.6
Serratia marcescens [n (%)] 12 (0.91) 0.5–1.6
 Other [n (%)] 45 (3.40) 2.5–4.6
Resistance phenotypes
 MRSA [n (%)] 129 (53.53) 47.0–60.0
 ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae [n (%)] 123 (55.91) 49.1–62.6
 MDR Acinetobacter baumannii [n (%)] 73 (54.47) 45.7–63.1
 ESBL Proteus mirabilis [n (%)] 65 (47.79) 39.2–56.5
 MRCNS [n (%)] 53 (62.35) 51.2–72.6
 MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa [n (%)] 52 (37.96) 29.8–46.6
 ESBL Escherichia coli [n (%)] 23 (16.67) 10.9–24.0
 ESBL Enterobacter cloacae [n (%)] 5 (29.41) 10.3–56.0