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Table 6 Antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates collected from chicken multiplication centers of different locations, management, breed and sample type in Southern Ethiopia

From: Determination of the sources and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolated from the poultry industry in Southern Ethiopia

AMR pattern (No. of drugs showing resistant + intermediate) Study area (N = 45) Management type Breed type Sample type
  n a %   n %   n %   n %
AMP*C-I*FOX*K*NA*S*SXT*TE (7 +1) Hawassa 1 2.2 Litter 1 2.2 WLH 1 2.2 Cloacal swab 1 2.2
AMP*C*CIP-I*FOX*K*NA*S*SXT*TE (8 + 1) Bonga 10 22.2 Cage 8 17.8 Bovans 8 17.8 Cloacal swab 18 40.0
Hawassa 14 31.1 Litter 16 35.6 WLH 16 35.6 Hand swab 2 4.4
          Bedding 4 8.9
Total 24 53.3 Total 24 53.3 Total 24 53.3 Total 24 53.3
AMP*C*CIP*FOX*K*NA*S*SXT*TE (9) Bonga 8 17.8 Cage 1 2.2 Bovans 1 2.2 Cloacal swab 8 17.8
Hawassa 1 2.2 Litter 8 17.8 WLH 8 17.8 Bedding 1 2.2
Total 9 20.0 Total 9 20.0 Total 9 20.0 Total 9 20.0
AMP*C*CN-I*CIP-I*FOX*K*NA*S*SXT*TE (8 + 2) Bonga 1 2.2 Litter 1 2.2 WLH 1 2.2 Cloacal swab 1 2.2
AMP*C*CN-I*CIP*FOX*K*NA*S*SXT*TE (9 + 1) Bonga 2 4.4 Litter 2 4.4 WLH 2 4.4 Hand swab 1 2.2
          Bedding 1 2.2
          Total 2 4.4
AMP*C*FOX*K*NA*S*SXT*TE (8) Bonga 3 6.7 Cage 1 2.2 Bovans 1 2.2 Cloacal swab 4 8.9
Hawassa 1 2.2 Litter 3 6.7 WLH 3 6.7    
Total 4 8.9 Total 4 8.9 Total 4 8.9    
AMP*CIP-I*FOX*K*NA*S*SXT*TE (7 + 1) Bonga 1 2.2 Litter 1 2.2 WLH 1 2.2 Cloacal swab 1 2.2
AMP*CIP*FOX*K*NA*S*SXT*TE (8) Bonga 1 2.2 Cage 1 2.2 Bovans 1 2.2 Cloacal swab 2 4.4
Hawassa 1 2.2 Litter 1 2.2 WLH 1 2.2    
Total 2 4.4 Total 2 4.4 Total 2 4.4    
C*K*S-I*SXT (3 + 1) Bonga 1 2.2 Litter 1 2.2 WLH 1 2.2 Cloacal swab 1 2.2
  1. #Number of isolates exhibiting the indicated resistance pattern in the respective rows. The “(+)” in the first column indicated number of drug types that manifested intermediate response category to the isolates. The number of isolates tested for AMR from Hawassa (n = 18), Bonga (n = 27), Cage (n = 11), Litter (n = 34), Bovans Brown (n = 11), White Leghorn (WLH) (n = 34), Cloacal swab (n = 36), bedding (n = 6) and personnel hand swab (n = 3). AMP, ampicillin; AMR, antimicrobial resistance; C, chloramphenicol; CN, gentamicin; CIP, ciprofloxacin; FOX, cefoxitin; K, kanamycin; NA, nalidixic acid; S, streptomycin; SXT, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim; TE, tetracycline
  2. Indicates intermediate breakpoints