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Table 1 Responses of supervising managers to interview about routine poultry farm practices, particularly on factors associated to Salmonella emergence, maintenance and spread

From: Determination of the sources and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolated from the poultry industry in Southern Ethiopia

No. Risk factors related to Salmonella emergence, maintenance and spread Bonga center Hawassa center Hawassa commercial farm
1 Litter change when new flock introduced to the house No No No
2 Poultry-house disinfection before placement Yes Yes Yes
3 Presence of pests in the houses (cockroaches, rats, etc.) Yes Yes No
4 Pest control No No No
5 Presence of other animal species in the farm No No No
6 Farm access to wild birds Yes Yes Yes
7 Boots for workers Yes Yes Yes
8 Common use of working and protective materials between houses Yes Yes Yes
9 Always boots dipping before entering poultry houses No No No
10 Free access to visitors and other workers of the farm Yes Yes Yes
11 Source of water for chickens Well Well Pipe
12 Conservation of sick chickens together with layer house Yes Yes Yes
13 Storage of manure inside the farm compound Yes Yes Yes
14 Antibiotic use without identification of disease etiology Yes Yes Yes
15 Poultry management types Litter Litter Cage
16 Washing of hands before handling chickens No No No
17 Regular cleaning of watering and feeding trough No No No
18 All in-all out practice No No No
19 Disposal of a dead chicken in the compound Yes Yes No
20 Rearing of different age groups of chickens in the farm Yes Yes No
21 Regular health checkup for workers No No No
22 Recent history of workers having signs of diarrhea Yes Yes No