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Table 4 Abdominal ultrasound examination findings in HIV cases with abdominal TB

From: Role of routine abdominal ultrasonography in intensified tuberculosis case finding algorithms at HIV clinics in high TB burden settings

Abdominal ultrasound examination findings No. of patients (%)
Enlarged lymph nodesa, thickened bowel loops & hepatosplenomegaly 6 (3)
Enlarged lymph nodesa, thickened bowel loops & ascites 2 (1)
Enlarged lymph nodesa, splenic micro-abscesses & hepatosplenomegaly 5 (2.5)
Enlarged lymph nodesa, splenic micro-abscesses & ascites 2 (1)
Enlarged lymph nodesa, hepatosplenomegaly & ascites 1 (0.5)
Enlarged lymph nodesa & thickened bowel loops 9 (4.5)
Enlarged lymph nodesa & splenic micro-abscesses 16 (8)
Enlarged lymph nodesa & hepatosplenomegaly 35 (17.5)
Enlarged lymph nodesa & ascitis 4 (2)
Thickened bowel loops & hepatosplenomegalyb 12 (6)
Thickened bowel loops & ascites 1 (0.5)
Splenic micro-abscesses & hepatosplenomegalyb 2 (1)
Splenic micro-abscesses & ascites 1 (0.5)
Enlarged lymph nodes only 88 (44)
Ascites only 4 (2)
Thickened bowel loops onlyc 9 (4.5)
Splenic micro-abscesses onlyc 3 (1.5)
  1. aMultiple abdominal lymph nodes, more than 1.5 cm in size with areas of central necrosis seen as hypoechogenecity on USG, with or without evidence of matting
  2. bTwo minor USG findings were supported by presence of at least two symptoms suggestive of TB or microiologically confirmed TB at another site
  3. cOne minor USG findings were supported by presence of microbiologically confirmed TB at another site