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Table 3 Factors associated with virological non-suppression among HIV patients on ART, August 2014–July 2015, (N = 100,678)

From: Factors Associated with Virological Non-suppression among HIV-Positive Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda, August 2014–July 2015

Variable Not suppressed (%) Suppressed (%) ORcrude(95%CI) ORadj(95%CI)a
Reason for testing
 Routine testing 8966(84) 8966(96) 1.0 1.0
 Suspected treatment failure 1018(10) 2474(3.0) 4.2(3.6–4.2) 3.3(3.0–3.6)
 Repeat testers after suspected failure 716(6) 720(1.0) 9.5(8.6–10) 6.3(5.5–7.2)
Age category
 35+ 4119(38) 52,527(59) 1.0 1.0
 34–30 1579(15) 13,915(16) 1.4(1.4–1.5) 1.6(1.5–1.7)
 29–25 1141(11) 9554(11) 1.5(1.4–1.6) 1.9(1.7–2.0)
 24–20 746(7) 4035(5) 2.4(2.2–2.6) 2.7(2.5–3.0)
 19–15 837(8) 2248(3) 4.7(4.4–5.2) 4.1(3.7–4.6)
 14–10 960(9) 3271(4) 3.7(3.5–4.1) 3.3(2.9–3.7)
 9–5 916(9) 3067(3) 3.8(3.5–4.1) 3.4(3.1–3.8)
 4–0 507(5) 1256(1) 5.1(4.6–5.7) 5.3(4.6–6.1)
Indication for treatment initiation
 PMTCT/Option B+ 589(6) 9231(11) 1.0 1.0
 Child <15 Years 1826(19) 5886(7) 4.9(4.4–5.6) 2.1(1.9–2.4)
 TB infection 194(2) 1302(2) 2.3(1.9–2.8) 2.1(1.8–2.6)
 CD4 < 500 7169(73) 67,232(80) 1.7(1.5–1.8) 2.0(1.8–2.2)
ARV adherence
  > 95% 8145(79) 77,295(89) 1.0 1.0
 85–94% 1659(17) 8406(8) 1.9(1.8–2.0) 1.6(1.5–1.7)
  < 85% 453(4) 839(1) 5.1(4.6–5.8) 3.4(2.9–3.9)
Treatment line
 First line 9945(93) 8453(95) 1.0 1.0
 Second/Third line 747(7) 4800(5) 1.3(1.3–1.4) 0.86(0.78–0.95)
Sex
 Female 6524(61) 60,573(68) 1.0 1.0
 Male 4132(39) 28,071(32) 1.4(1.3–1.4) 1.2(1.1–1.3)
Active TB
 No 1,0236(99) 86,650(99) 1.0 1.0
 Yes 131(1) 537(1) 2.1(1.7–2.5) 1.9(1.6–2.4)
Health Facility Level
 HCII + HCIII 1455(13) 13,949(16) 1.0 1.0
 HCIV + General hospital 2293(21) 23,809(27) 0.92(0.86–0.99) 0.89(0.82–0.97)
 Specialized HIV services 1482(14) 12,462(14) 1.1(1.1–1.2) 1.2(1.1–1.3)
 RRH + NRH 5575(52) 39,628(44) 1.3(1.3–1.4) 1.0(0.96–1.1)
Duration on treatment
 0–2 Years 3680(34) 32,661(36) 1.0 1.0
 3–5 Years 3900(36) 29,028(32) 1.2(1.1–1.3) 1.3(1.2–1.4)
 6–10 Years 2928(27) 2549(28) 1.0(0.97–1.1) 1.1(1.1–1.2)
  > 10 Years 257(3) 2469(4) 0.92(0.81–1.1) 0.91(0.78–1.1)
Breast feeding
 No 5964(95) 54,369(93) 1.0  
 Yes 297(5) 4400(8) 0.61(0.54–0.69)
Pregnant
 No 6113(98) 56,841(97)   
 Yes 153(2) 1856(3) 0.77(0.65–0.91)
  1. Denominator for pregnant/breastfeeding mothers was total females in the sample
  2. HCII health centre two, HCIII health centre three, HCIV health centre four, RRH regional referral hospitals, NRH national referral hospitals
  3. aWe adjusted for age, sex, ARV adherence, treatment line (first, second/third), identification for treatment initiation at baseline (ePMTCT option B+, child under 15, CD4 < 500 and TB infection), having active TB, duration on treatment, and health facility level