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Table 2 Results for the independent variable ‘private healthcare provision’ in multivariate logistic regression analyses of laboratory tests, treatment regimens and outcomes among adult Victorian TB patients, 2002–2015

From: Comparing tuberculosis management under public and private healthcare providers: Victoria, Australia, 20022015

Outcome Public patients: outcome present/total Private patients: outcome present/total Univariate analysis Multivariate analysisa
OR (95%CI) p aOR (95%CI) P value Other independent variables
Investigations performed
 CXRb 2324/2466 74/83 0.50 (0.25–1.02) 0.058 0.56 (0.26–1.18) 0.125 a sx p s c h o I y
 CXR - extrapulmonary patients 1747/1993 164/182 1.28 (0.78–2.13) 0.333 NA a sx y
 Smear sputum sampleb 1937/2466 58/83 0.63 (0.39–1.02) 0.062 0.52 (0.31–0.86) 0.011 a sx p pe c h o y
 Bronchial wash sampleb sp. 789/2466 35/83 1.55 (0.99–2.42) 0.053 1.49 (0.75–2.96) 0.252 p s f c h o y cx sp. c#h
 Smear sample – extrapulmonary patients 1306/1993 96/182 0.59 (0.43–1.83) 0.001 0.54 (0.37–0.77) 0.001 a sx p h o c y cx
 Genotypic TB testingc 2151/4518 93/268 0.58 (0.45–0.76) <0.001 0.65 (0.47–0.89) 0.008 a pe ly e d r p h y s o cx cx#m
Investigation results
 Abnormal first chest x-ray/CT scanb 2171/2271 69/70 3.18 (0.44–23.12) 0.253 NA a sx pe r o y
 Abnormal first chest x-ray/CT scan - extrapulmonary patients 655/1650 44/146 0.66 (0.45–0.95) 0.024 0.71 (0.48–1.04) 0.080 a sx e p c h o y
 Cavitation 431/2156 10/69 0.68 (0.34–1.34) 0.262 NA sx pe‡ r s h‡ y‡
 Smear-positive sputum sampleb 789/1937 19/58 0.71 (0.41–1.24) 0.225 0.54 (0.27–1.05) 0.070 pe r p s h f cx y
 Smear positive – extrapulmonary patients 296/1093 34/87 1.73 (1.10–2.71) 0.017 1.51 (0.89–2.56) 0.132 e p h y cx
 Positive genotypic test 1811/2151 79/93 1.00 (0.58–1.73) 0.998 NA a r cx pe ly e d s o y
 Culture-positive 3665/3968 208/229 0.82 (0.51–1.30) 0.398 NA sx pe ly e d r h y cx
 Presumptive diagnoses – not confirmed by culture or PCR. 839/4706 54/273 1.14 (0.84–1.54) 0.414 NA a sx pe ly e d r s f c h o y cx
Treatment commencement
 Prior to any positive test result or abnormal chest x-ray/CT scan 1053/4149 77/221 1.57 (1.18–2.09) 0.002 1.10 (0.80–1.51) 0.575 a sx pe ly e d r p f c h o y h#m
Following abnormal chest x-ray/CT scan, before any other resultsb 998/2135 17/48 0.42 (0.34–0.74) 0.003 0.43 (0.23–0.78) 0.006 a r p s c y
 Following positive cultureb sp 327/2405 22/76 2.59 (1.56–4.31) <0.001 1.22 (0.58–2.54) 0.604 a sx pe p f c sp.
 Following positive culture, extrapulmonary patients 305/1918 38/173 1.49 (1.02–2.18) 0.040 1.15 (0.72–1.84) 0.548 a sx ea. r p s y cx
Treatment regimen and outcome
 Fewer than four first-line medicationsd 332/3996 29/208 1.79 (1.19–2.69) 0.005 2.17 (1.36–3.46) 0.001 a sx pe ly e d p f c h o y
 Completed treatment 4043/4147 225/235 0.58 (0.30–1.12) 0.106 0.61 (0.31–1.21) 0.158 a sx pe ly e d p s h y
 Died before or during treatment 195/4288 17/244 1.57 (0.94–2.63) 0.084 1.16 (0.60–2.23) 0.652 a sx pe ly e d r p s f c h o y
  1. Definition of abbreviations: TB tuberculosis; NA not applicable, not included in multivariate analysis, private p > 0.25 in univariate analysis, obs observations, lab laboratory, OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio, IQR interquartile range, # interaction term
  2. aVariables considered in all univariate analyses – age (a) (five groups: 0–9 years; 10–17 years; 18–34 years; 35–64 years, ≥65 years); sex (sx); Manifestation (m) (pulmonary only, pulmonary plus other sites [pe], lymph node [ly], disseminated [d] or other extrapulmonary [e]); saw rural health provider (r); saw private health provider (p); history of substance abuse (s); ever resided in an aged care facility (f); household member or close contact with TB (c); born in high burden country (h); overseas born (o); year of notification (y) (groups: 2002–2005; 2006–2011; 2012–2015); First CXR results (cx) were also considered for all “Investigations performed” and “Investigation results” and “Treatment commencement” analyses except those regarding CXRs. Sputum smear results (sp) were included in several analyses where noted
  3. bOnly patients with pulmonary involvement included in the analysis
  4. cOnly patients with a specimen sample included in analysis
  5. dConfined to patients that commenced treatment; began on treatment prior to culture results being available; and were not identified as a part of a screening or contact investigation
  6. Independent variables included in multivariate analyses with p<0.05