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Table 1 Plausible ranges and sources of cost and DALY parameters

From: Universal test, treat, and keep: improving ART retention is key in cost-effective HIV control in Uganda

Name Description Plausible range Source
1st_‌line_‌drug_‌cost Annual cost of 1st line antiretroviral drugs, per person 118–137 USD Uganda Ministry of Health (2013) [31] and WHO (2015) [32]
2nd_‌line_‌drug_‌cost Annual cost of 2nd line antiretroviral drugs, per person 151–330 USD Uganda Ministry of Health (2013) [31] and WHO (2015) [32]
preART_‌program_‌cost Annual pre-ART program costs, per person 79–316 USD Menzies et al. (2011) [33]
early_‌ART_‌program_‌cost Annual program costs of providing ART for 1st six months, per person 112–449 USD Menzies et al. (2011) [33]
reduced_‌cost_‌established_‌ART Reduction in program costs after 6 continuous months on an ART regimen 0.7–1 Menzies et al. (2011) [33]
HIV_‌test_‌cost Cost per HIV test 5.51–7.05 USD Nichols et al. (2014) [34] and Mulogo et al. (2013) [35]
CD4_‌test_‌cost Cost per CD4 test 5.18–17.48 USD Kahn et al. (2011) [36] and Lara et al. (2012) [37]
clinic_‌visit_‌cost Average cost per clinic visit (due to HIV-related morbidity) 2.49–9.94 USD Pitter et al. (2007) [38]
hospital_‌night_‌cost Average cost of a night’s stay in hospital 3.95–15.80 USD Pitter et al. (2007) [38]
nights_‌per_‌hospital_‌visit Average duration of an inpatient hospital stay, in nights 3–7 Pitter et al. (2007) [38]
‌hospital_‌nights_‌parameter Determines the relationship between CD4 count and the rate of inpatient hospital stays per year for HIV+ people not receiving ART or pre-ART care (see Additional files 1 and 2 for details) −147.9 - -79.4 Mermin et al. (2008) [39]
reduced_‌hospital_‌pre-ART_‌care Reduction in inpatient hospital visits for HIV+ people receiving pre-ART care 0.48–0.98 Mermin et al. (2008) [39]
reduced_‌clinic_‌pre-ART_‌care Reduction in clinic visits for HIV+ people receiving pre-ART care 0.73–0.995 Mermin et al. (2008) [39]
reduced_‌hospital_‌ART Increased reduction in inpatient hospital visits for HIV+ people on ART compared to people receiving pre-ART care 0.32–0.78 Mermin et al. (2008) [39]
clinic_‌hospital_‌visit_‌ratio Ratio of clinic visits to inpatient hospital stays 2–5 Mermin et al. (2004) [40]
additional_HIV_test_increased_cost Increased cost of HIV tests conducted as part of an intervention (relative to baseline cost) −0.5 - 0.5 Menzies et al. (2009) [41] and Tumwesigye et al. (2010) [42]
improved_linkage_to_care_cost Increase in cost per positive HIV test associated with interventions to improve linkage to care. 0–20 USD Expert knowledge
reduced_ART_drop_out_cost Increase in ART program costs per person per year to improve retention 0–50 USD Chang et al. (2010) [43] and Chang et al. (2013) [44]
increase_ART_restart_cost Cost of increasing ART restart rates per dropout per year 0–50 USD Chang et al. (2010) [43] and Chang et al. (2013) [44]
reduced_preART_drop_out_cost Increase in pre-ART program costs per person per year to improve pre-ART care 0–50 USD Chang et al. (2010) [43] and Chang et al. (2013) [44]
  1. Full details of the cost and DALY parameters used are given in Additional file 2