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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of nasal and oral histoplasmosis in 18 patients

From: Case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient revealed by nasal involvement with maxillary osteolysis

N°/Ref Sex Age (years) Risk Factor CD4 (/mm3) Clinical Presentation Diagnosis Location Treatment Follow up (M: months) Country
1 [31] M 32 HIV infection 60 Pain Histology Nasal septum perforation Amphotericin B then itraconazole 6 M, Improvement Colombia
2 [31] F 37 HIV infection 133 Nasal itch, epistaxis, nasal discharge Histology Nasal septum perforation Itraconazole 2 M, Improvement Colombia
3 [32] M 59 HCV infection   Nose wound with crust Not available Nasal ulceration covered by crusts Itraconazole 1 M, Improvement Brazil
4 [33] M 27 HIV infection 20 Fatigue, fever, skin lesions, dyspnea Histology Disseminated (nasal ulceration and cutaneous) Amphotericin B then itraconazole Improvement Argentina
5 [34] M 37 HIV infection Not available Fever, dysphagia, inflammatory and hemorrhagic nasal process Histology Destruction of nasal septum No treatment Death Brazil
6 [35] M 30 None   Nasal swelling Histology Nasal crusts Itraconazole Lost follow-up India
7 [23] F 79 Farmer   Fatigue, nasal obstruction Histology Nasal ulceration and crusts Itraconazole Lost follow-up USA (Ohio)
8 [36] M 37 Renal transplant, HBV/HCV coinfection   Nose septal destruction Not available Ulceration in mouth and nose Amphotericin B then itraconazole 1 M, Improvement Brazil
9 [37] F 32 HIV infection 69 Fatigue, fever, nasal pain, nasal pyramid collapse Histology Destruction of the cartilaginous septum, columella and left nasal wing, and ulcerations Amphotericin B 12 M, Improvement Brazil
10 [38] M 39 HIV infection 20 Nasal congestion, post nasal rhinorrhea, cough Histology Sinusitis, Skin rash, pulmonary involvement Itraconazole Improvement USA (La)
11 [39] F 49 HIV infection Not available Nasal obstruction Histology and culture Lesion on the nasal vestibule and septum Not available Death Brazil
12 [39] F 23 HIV infection Not available Not available Histology Crusts Amphotericin B then itraconazole Improvement Brazil
13 [40] M 43 HIV infection, farmer 15 Nasal regurgitation Histology Complete destruction of the nasal architecture, palatal perforation Itraconazole Improvement Brazil
14 [41] M 39 HIV infection 120 Nasal obstruction, post nasal rhinorrhea, headache, epistaxis Histology Papular and nodular rash, polypoid and inflammatory nasal mucosa in the right nasal fossa, bulging posterior wall of the nasopharynx Amphotericin B Improvement Morocco
15 [42] M 30 Adrenal insufficiency   Visual acuity impairment, nasal, septum and soft palate lesions Histology Endophtalmitis, nasal, septum and soft palate lesions Amphotericin B (intraocular injection), itraconazole 12 W, Improvement Argentina
16 [43] NA NA HIV infection Not available Not available Not available Mouth, gingivae, hard palate, right maxillary sinus, right nasal cavity Not available Not available South Africa
17 [44] M 76 Chronic lymphocytic leukemia   Epistaxis and facial pain, facial erythema, swelling, and fever Histology and culture Ethmoïdal, sphenoidal and maxillary sinusitis Amphotericin B then itraconazole Improvement Brazil
18 [45] M 36 HIV infection, drug abuse Not available Fever, orodynia Histology Ulceration on the nasal bridge, necrotizing gingivitis and granulomatous oral lesion Ketoconazole 4 M, Death Brazil