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Table 1 Symptoms and characteristics of participants aged ≥60 years with and without influenza presenting to emergency departments, Ontario, Canada, 2011/12 and 2012/13

From: Predictors of influenza among older adults in the emergency department

Participant characteristics/symptomsa No Influenza Influenza p-value
n = 1167 (%) n = 151 (%)
Age, median (IQR) 76.1 yrs (IQR 68.4–84.1) 77.4 yrs (IQR 68.9–86.1) .35
Female sex 578 (50) 78 (52) .62
Used public transportation ≤4 days before onset 160 (14) 23 (15) .62
Children (≤16 years) in household 98 (8) 17 (11) .26
Works with children 14 (1) 5 (3) .06
Exposed to person with ILI ≤7 days before onset 275 (24) 64 (42) <.001
Material deprivation index, Median 3 (IQR 1–4) 3 (IQR 2–5) .001
White/Caucasian 895 (78) 105 (70) .03
Influenza vaccine, current season 768 (66) 100 (68) .75
Pulmonary /cardiac disease or immunosuppressed 709 (61) 93 (62) .84
Frail (≥5 on Clinical Frailty Score) 309 (27) 36 (24) .35
Enrolment season:    
 2011/12 563 (93) 43 (7) <.001
 2012/13 604 (85) 108 (15)  
Enrolled week when ≥10 % of influenza tests positive 1057 (91) 149 (99) <.001
Healthcare use prior to ED arrival
Prior consultation with health practitioner 465 (40) 66 (44) .34
Antibiotics prescribed 187 (16) 40 (26) .002
Antipyretics taken 512 (44) 68 (45) .79
Other general symptom relief medications taken 85 (7) 24 (16) .001
Presenting symptoms
Cough (self-report and/or chart) 649 (56) 142 (94) <.001
Wheezing (chart) 90 (8) 35 (23) <.001
Sore throat 244 (21) 60 (40) <.001
Stuffy/runny nose 353 (30) 88 (58) <.001
Sneezing 274 (24) 50 (33) .01
Shortness of breath 693 (59) 98 (65) .19
Any one or more of: sore throat, runny/stuffy nose or sneezing 522 (45) 111 (74) <.001
Feverishness and/or triage temp ≥37.2 °C 463 (40) 115 (76) <.001
Headache 419 (36) 71 (47) .01
Myalgia 357 (31) 71 (47) <.001
Chills (self-report and/or chart) 172 (15) 57 (38) <.001
Weakness 873 (75) 125 (83) .03
Fatigue 906 (78) 138 (91) <.001
Loss of appetite 603 (52) 102 (68) <.001
Median number of systemic symptoms (headache, myalgia, chills, weakness, fatigue, or loss of appetite) 2 (IQR 2–3) 3 (IQR 2–4) <.001
Confused (self-report and/or chart) 257 (22) 46 (30) .02
Time from symptom onset to ED triage:    
 0–1 day 451 (39) 25 (17) <.001
 2–5 days 320 (27) 81 (54)  
  ≥ 6 days 393 (34) 43 (29)  
Acute onset of symptoms 586 (50) 70 (47) .33
  1. IQR Interquartile range, ED Emergency department, ILI influenza-like illness
  2. aSymptoms and characteristics were based on self-reported data unless indicated otherwise; The proportion of participants with missing data for any given predictor did not exceed 3 %
  3. Material deprivation index ranks from 1 (most privileged neighborhood) to 5 quintiles (most deprived neighborhood)
  4. Acute onset was self-defined as symptom development within a few hours rather than gradual worsening of symptoms ≥ 6 h