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Table 3 Characteristics associated with epidemiologic links being identified by CLI TB patient interviews (Step 4) versus earlier in CLI (Steps 1–3)

From: Validation of genotype cluster investigations for Mycobacterium tuberculosis: application results for 44 clusters from four heterogeneous United States jurisdictions

  Epi-linked patient-pairs with concordant PCRTypes Unadjusted Adjusteda
Identified without CLI TB patient interviews (n = 158) Identified by CLI TB patient interviews (n = 30) OR p-value 95 % CI OR p-value 95 % CI
Study site, n (%)
 Texas (City of Houston) 45 (28.5 %) 15 (50.0 %) 2.51 0.226 0.57, 11.16 0.20 0.191 0.02, 2.25
 Massachusetts 26 (16.5 %) 2 (6.7 %) 0.36 0.218 0.07, 1.82 0.04 0.004 0.00, 0.35
 Maryland 48 (30.4 %) 1 (3.3 %) 0.08 0.050 0.01, 1.00 0.01 0.036 0.00, 0.73
 Georgia 39 (24.7 %) 12 (40.0 %) 2.03 0.357 0.45, 9.22 --   
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
 Asian 4 (2.5 %) 5 (16.7 %) 7.70 <0.001 3.12, 19.00 0.28 0.349 0.02, 4.07
 Black 93 (58.9 %) 6 (20.0 %) 0.18 0.010 0.05, 0.66 0.21 0.036 0.05, 0.90
 Hispanic 32 (20.1 %) 13 (43.3 %) 3.01 0.211 0.53, 16.97 --   
 White 24 (10.8 %) 6 (10.0 %) 1.11 0.889 0.25, 4.94 --   
Transmission setting, n (%)
 Household 29 (18.4 %) 0 (0.0 %)   NA   --   
 Close social 27 (17.1 %) 2 (6.7 %) 0.35 0.147 0.08, 1.45 --   
 Workplace 5 (3.2 %) 4 (13.3 %) 4.71 0.015 1.36, 16.35 7.16 0.032 1.19, 43.08
 Shelter 58 (36.7 %) 4 (13.3 %) 0.27 0.139 0.05, 1.54 --   
 Church 5 (3.2 %) 8 (26.7 %) 11.13 0.051 0.99, 125.43 10.98 0.046 1.04, 116.08
 Drug house 17 (10.8 %) 2 (6.7 %) 0.59 0.579 0.09, 3.76 --   
 Other 17 (10.8 %) 10 (33.3 %) 0.24 0.047 0.06, 0.98 0.25 0.024 0.08, 0.83
Relationship between case pairs, n (%)
 Relative 25 (15.8 %) 0 (0.0 %)   NA   --   
 Friend 41 (26.0 %) 4 (13.3 %) 0.44 0.204 0.12, 1.56 --   
 Coworker 4 (2.5 %) 4 (13.3 %) 5.92 0.008 1.58, 22.27 --   
Genotype lineage, n (%)
 East Asian (L2) lineage 30 (19.0 %) 12 (40.0 %) 2.84 0.118 0.77, 10.54 0.98 0.976 0.19, 5.07
 Euro-American (L4) lineage 122 (77.2 %) 18 (60.0 %) 0.44 0.229 0.12, 1.67 --   
Common genotype in US†, n (%) 8 (5.1 %) 2 (6.7 %) 1.34 0.709 0.29, 6.21 --   
Extra-pulmonary only site of TB, n (%) 8 (5.1 %) 6 (20.0 %) 4.69 0.033 1.13, 19.42 9.54 0.105 0.62, 146.32
US-birth, n (%) 132 (83.5 %) 24 (80.0 %) 0.79 0.739 0.19, 3.21 --   
HIV infection, n (%) 54 (34.2 %) 6 (20.0 %) 0.48 0.301 0.12, 1.92 --   
Incarcerated at TB diagnosis, n (%) 10 (6.3 %) 1 (3.3 %) 0.51 0.567 0.05, 5.10 --   
Homeless, n (%) 83 (52.5 %) 8 (26.7 %) 0.33 0.136 0.08, 1.42 --   
Excess alcohol use, n (%) 112 (70.9 %) 15 (50.0 %) 0.41 0.146 0.12, 1.37 --   
Non-injection drug use, n (%) 70 (44.3 %) 8 (26.7 %) 0.46 0.058 0.20, 1.03 0.48 0.118 0.19, 1.21
Patient pairs with different zip codes in same jurisdiction, n (%) 99 (66.9 %) 22 (88.0 %) 3.63 0.022 1.21, 10.89 2.84 0.174 0.63, 12.83
Patient pairs from different jurisdictions, n (%) 10 (6.3 %) 5 (16.7 %) 2.96 0.103 0.81, 10.89 4.41 0.070 0.89, 21.95
Epidemiologic link strength = “definite”, n (%) 114 (72.2 %) 10 (33.3 %) 0.19 <0.001 0.08, 0.45 0.22 0.007 0.22, 43.23
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, CLI cluster investigation
  2. aAdjusted in the multivariate model. The final model included study site, race/ethnicity, transmission setting, genotype lineage, TB site, non-injection drug use, pairs with different zip codes in same jurisdiction, pairs from different jurisdictions and definite epi-link link strength
  3. †PCRTypes associated with > 400 TB patients in the U.S. 2006-2010 and reported in > 40 states (PCR00002, PCR00015, PCR00022, PCR00041)