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Table 4 Factors associated with ESBL-Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection (BSI)

From: Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections at a South African children’s hospital 2006–2011, a cross-sectional study

Risk factors for ESBL KPBSI ESBL Non-ESBL Univariate analysis Adjusted analysis (n = 271)
n/N (%) n/N (%) RRa (95 % CI) p-value RR (95 % CI) p-value
Moderate or severe underweight for age 209/339 (61.7) 32/71 (45.1) 1.13 (1.02–1.24) 0.01 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.40
HIV-infection 79/249 (31.7) 3/39 (7.7) 1.22 (1.13–1.30) <0.001 1.14 (1.04–1.25) 0.01
Patient in the PICUb 92/339 (27.1) 11/71 (15.5) 1.11 (1.02–1.21) 0.04 0.99 (0.88–1.12) 0.94
Cephalosporin exposure in the last 12 months pre-BSI 184/339 (54.3) 12/71 (16.9) 1.30 (1.18–1.42) <0.001 1.18 (1.06–1.31) 0.002
Mechanical ventilation prior to BSI 142/335 (42.4) 13/71 (18.3) 1.19 (1.10–1.29) <0.001 1.08 (0.93–1.24) 0.31
Continuous infusion for >3 days prior to BSI 247/334 (74.0) 30/71 (42.3) 1.31 (1.16–1.49) <0.001 1.15 (1.04–1.28) 0.009
Indwelling urinary catheter prior to BSI 139/335 (41.5) 12/71 (16.9) 1.20 (1.10–1.30) <0.001 1.09 (0.99–1.20) 0.10
Major surgical procedure prior to BSIc 115/336 (34.2) 16/71 (22.5) 1.10 (1.01–1.20) 0.04 1.06 (0.95–1.18) 0.33
Skin erosions 111/336 (33.0) 19/71 (26.8) 1.05 (0.96–1.15) 0.30 1.07 (0.98–1.17) 0.12
Previous KP infection within last 12 months 39/338 (11.5) 3/71 (4.2) 1.14 (1.03–1.26) 0.01 0.96 (0.84–1.11) 0.62
  1. Multivariable model adjusted for gender, age, HIV infection, underweight-for-age, mechanical ventilation, patient in the PICU at the time of the BSI, continuous IV infusion for more than 3 days before the BSI, indwelling urinary catheter, major surgery before the BSI, Previous KP infection within last 12 months, skin erosions and cephalosporin exposure during last 12 months before the BSI. aRR adjusted risk ratio
  2. ESBL-KP extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, BSI bloodstream infection
  3. aRR risk ratio; bPICU: paediatric intensive care unit; c A major surgical procedure included a laparotomy (emergency or elective), a thoracotomy, a skin graft or a craniotomy; Risk ratio 95 % confidence intervals that do not cross the null value of 1 are shown in bold