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  • Erratum
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Erratum to: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Enterobacter species versus Escherichia coli: a matched case-control study

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BMC Infectious DiseasesBMC series – open, inclusive and trusted201616:519

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-1828-0

  • Received: 9 June 2016
  • Accepted: 13 September 2016
  • Published:

The original article was published in BMC Infectious Diseases 2016 16:252

Erratum description

n.b. The errors and associated corrections described in this document concerning the original manuscript were accountable to the production department handling this manuscript, and thus are no fault of the authors of this paper.

In the original publication of this article [1], the tables were inadvertently omitted. These can be found below:
Table 1

Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

Variable

Enterobacter SBP

(n = 32)

E. coli SBP

(n = 128)

P

Male sex

26 (81.3)

104 (81.3)

 

Age, years (mean ± SD)

55 ± 10.9

55 ± 11.7

 

SBP subtype

  

0.03

 Definite SBPa

26 (81.2)

78 (60.9)

 

 Probable SBPb

6 (18.8)

50 (39.1)

 

Place of acquisition

  

<0.001

 Community

12 (37.5)

98 (76.6)

 

 Hospital

20 (62.5)

30 (23.4)

 

Concomitant hepatocellular carcinoma

21 (65.6)

48 (37.5)

0.004

Causes of liver cirrhosis

  

0.79

 Hepatitis B virus

21 (65.6)

88 (68.8)

 

 Hepatitis C virus

2 (6.2)

13 (10.2)

 

 Alcoholism

6 (18.8)

19 (14.8)

 

 Others

3 (9.4)

8 (6.2)

 

Child-Pugh class

  

0.006

 A

1 (3.1)

0 (0)

 

 B

10 (31.3)

17 (13.3)

 

 C

21 (65.6)

111 (86.7)

 

MELD score, median (IQR)

19 (15–24)

23 (18–29)

0.03

Underlying diseases

   

 Diabetes mellitus

9 (28.1)

25 (19.5)

0.29

 Alcoholism

6 (18.8)

23 (18.0)

0.92

 Solid cancer (other than hepatoma)

3 (9.4)

4 (3.1)

0.14

 Chronic kidney disease

1 (3.1)

2 (1.6)

0.49

 Solid organ transplantation

1 (3.1)

0 (0)

0.20

Comorbid conditions

   

 Transarterial chemoembolization (<30 days)

4 (12.5)

4 (3.1)

0.052

 Endoscopic intervention (≤30 days)

8 (25.0)

7 (5.5)

0.001

 Varix control

5

6

 

 ERCP

3

1

 

Systemic anticancer chemotherapy (≤30 days)

3 (9.4)

0 (0)

0.007

Prior hospitalization (≤90 days)

26 (81.2)

74 (57.8)

0.01

Prior antimicrobial therapy (<30 days)

19 (59.4)

36 (28.1)

0.001

Values are n (%) unless otherwise indicated. MELD model for end-stage liver disease, IQR interquartile range

ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

aAscites culture was positive

bAscites culture was negative, while blood culture was positive without any other primary focus

Table 2

Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis by study group

Variable

Enterobacter SBP

(n = 32)

E. coli SBP

(n = 128)

P

Initial clinical manifestation, n (%)

 Abdominal pain

23 (71.9)

90 (70.3)

0.86

 Fever

24 (75.0)

87 (68.0)

0.44

 Hepatic encephalopathy

6 (18.8)

34 (26.6)

0.36

 Septic shock

5 (15.6)

31 (24.2)

0.30

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, n (%)

9 (28.1)

12 (9.4)

0.005

 Variceal bleeding

7

11

 

 Ulcer bleeding

1

1

 

 Duodenal invasion of cancer

1

0

 

Concomitant bacteremia, n (%)

11 (34.4)

87 (68.0)

0.001

Laboratory finding, median (IQR)

 Serum WBC, cells/μL

8,050 (5,125 − 13,200)

6,450 (4,400 − 9,675)

0.12

 Platelets, x 10/mL

61 (44–104)

62 (41–85)

0.15

 C-reactive protein, mg/dL

6.41 (2.1–7.9)

3.06 (1.1–6.2)

0.06

 Serum creatinine, mg/dL

1.2 (0.9–1.5)

1.2 (0.9–1.7)

0.80

 Serum bilirubin, mg/dL

3.8 (2.6–12.2)

5.3 (3.5–10.3)

0.79

 Ascites WBC, cells/μL

6,160 (1,945–11,795)

5,360 (2,690–11,960)

0.45

 Ascites neutrophils, cells/μL

5,058 (1,483–10,899)

4,275 (2,092–10,771)

0.46

Ascites protein, mg/dL

1.5 (1.0–2.5)

1.0 (0.8–1.4)

0.003

WBC white blood cells, IQR interquartile range

Table 3

Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates of Enterobacter species and Escherichia coli

Antimicrobiala

Enterobacter SBP

(n = 31)

E. coli SBP

(n = 125)

P

Cefotaxime

23/31 (74.2)

106/125 (84.8)

0.16

Ceftazidime

22/31 (71.0)

106/125 (84.8)

0.07

Ceftriaxone

22/31 (71.0)

106/125 (84.8)

0.07

Third-generation cephalosporinsb

22/31 (71.0)

106/125 (84.8)

0.07

Cefepime

25/29 (86.2)

103/123 (83.7)

1.00

Ciprofloxacin

25/31 (80.6)

76/125 (60.8)

0.038

Piperacillin/tazobactam

23/31 (74.2)

116/125 (92.8)

0.003

Imipenem

31/31 (100.0)

125/125 (100.0)

1.00

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

27/31 (87.1)

74/125 (59.2)

0.003

Amikacin

30/31 (96.8)

124/125 (99.2)

0.36

Gentamicin

27/31 (87.1)

84/125 (67.2)

0.03

Tobramycin

27/31 (87.1)

81/125 (64.8)

0.02

Values are n (%) unless otherwise indicated

aNot all of the isolates underwent susceptibility testing

bMeans cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. The susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins was defined by the breakpoints of the 2008 Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (susceptible, ≤ 8 μg/ml; intermediate, 16–32 μg/ml; and resistant, ≥ 64 μg/ml) [18]

Table 4

Treatments and outcomes in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Enterobacter species and Escherichia coli

Variable

Enterobacter SBP (n = 32)

E. coli SBP (n = 128)

P

Initial empirical antimicrobial agent

 Cefotaxime

27 (84.4)

116 (90.6)

0.31

 Imipenem or meropenem

4 (12.4)

9 (7.0)

 

 Cefazolin

1 (3.1)

0 (0)

 

 Ceftazidime

0 (0)

1 (0.8)

 

 Cefepime

0 (0)

1 (0.8)

 

 Levofloxacin

0 (0)

1 (0.8)

 

Appropriateness of initial therapy

27 (87.1)

109 (87.2)

1.00

Initial response to empirical treatmenta

26/32 (81.3)

95/117 (81.2)

0.995

Emergence of resistance during third-generation cephalosporin treatment

1/23 (4.3)

0/98 (0)

0.19

Duration of hospitalization, median days (IQR)

 Overall

20 (11–31)

16 (10–26)

0.28

 Survivors

22 (12–31)

16 (11–26)

0.41

Duration of antimicrobial use, median days (IQR)

 Overall

15 (11–25)

13 (8–16)

0.02

 Survivors

16 (13–29)

13 (10–16)

0.01

ICU care during admission

2 (6.2)

19 (14.8)

0.25

Mortality

 14-day mortality

7 (21.9)

25 (19.5)

0.77

 30-day mortality

12 (37.5)

37 (28.9)

0.35

 In-hospital mortality

12 (37.5)

28 (21.9)

0.07

Values are n (%) unless otherwise indicated. IQR interquartile range, ICU intensive care unit

aAscitic neutrophil decrease >25 % observed 48–72 h after initiating antimicrobials

Notes

Declarations

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Infectious Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
(2)
Department of Gastroenterology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
(3)
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Reference

  1. Bae S, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Enterobacter species versus Escherichia coli: a matched case–control study. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16:252. doi:10.1186/s12879-016-1595-y.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s). 2016

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