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Table 2 Univariate analysis: behavioral determinants associated with influenza vaccine uptake among health professionals

From: Factors effecting influenza vaccination uptake among health care workers: a multi-center cross-sectional study

Participant opinions Vaccine compliant (n = 58)a Vaccine non-compliant (n = 570)a Odds ratio (95 % CI) P
Perceived risk
 I have high risk for influenza 53/56 (94.6 %) 409/568 (72 %) 6.87 (2.12–22.30) 0.001
 I can spread infection to my patients even if I am asymptomatic 46/56 (82.1 %) 352/566 (62.2 %) 2.80 (1.38–5.66) 0.004
 Health professionals are under the highest risk in case of an epidemic 54/56 (96.4 %) 512/567 (90.3 %) 2.90 (0.69–12.22) 0.147
 I can spread infection to my family even if I am asymptomatic 39/56 (69.6 %) 325/564 (57.6 %) 1.69 (0.93–3.05) 0.084
Severity of the perceived risk
 Influenza is dangerous for me 46/57 (80.7 %) 388/561 (69.2 %) 1.86 (0.94–3.69) 0.073
 Influenza is dangerous for my patients 50/56 (89.3 %) 501/559 (89.6 %) 0.96 (0.40–2.35) 0.937
 Influenza is dangerous for my family 52/57 (91.2 %) 478/564 (84.8 %) 1.87 (0.73–4.82) 0.194
Perceived benefit
 Vaccination reduces my personal risk 56/57 (98.2 %) 367/565 (65 %) 30.21 (4.15–219.90) 0.001
 Vaccination reduces the risk of spreading the disease to my patients 53/55 (96.4 %) 373/561 (66.5 %) 13.36 (3.22–55.40) <0.001
 Vaccination reduces the risk of spreading the disease to my family 53/56 (94.6 %) 372/568 (65.5 %) 9.31 (2.87–30.17) <0.001
 Community vaccination reduces my workload during an epidemic 52/55 (94.5 %) 382/562 (68.0 %) 8.17 (2.52–26.51) <0.001
Perceived barriers
 I don’t expect a side effect after vaccination 29/56 (51.8 %) 183/563 (32.5 %) 2.23 (1.28–3.88) 0.004
 The inactive influenza vaccine currently available in our country is effective 46/56 (82.1 %) 204/557 (36.6 %) 7.96 (3.93–16.11) <0.001
 Allergic reaction against influenza vaccine is rare, or none 42/57 (73.7 %) 190/561 (33.9 %) 5.47 (2.96–10.11) <0.001
 Autoimmune disease development risk is rare, or none, after influenza vaccine 40/57 (70.2 %) 189/566 (33.4 %) 4.69 (2.59–8.50) <0.001
 I am not against vaccination 51/56 (91.1 %) 433/562 (77.0 %) 3.04 (1.19–7.77) 0.020
 Need for vaccination every year negatively effects my regular vaccination 30/54 (55.6 %) 237/549 (43.2 %) 1.65 (0.94–2.89) 0.083
 One can catch influenza even if vaccinated 49/55 (89.1 %) 451/557 (81.0 %) 1.92 (0.80–4.60) 0.144
 I had side effects from my previous influenza vaccinations 21/57 (36.8 %) 133/553 (24.1 %) 1.84 (1.04–3.27) 0.036
 The influenza vaccine itself does not cause influenza 26/56 (46.4 %) 215/557 (38.6 %) 1.38 (0.79–2.39) 0.254
 Health professionals should be vaccinated even if patients have been vaccinated 50/56 (89.3 %) 327/562 (58.2 %) 5.99 (2.53–14.20) <0.001
 I find injection every year uncomfortable 27/55 (49.1 %) 285/563 (50.6 %) 0.94 (0.54–1.64) 0.828
 Vaccination does not reduce the overall immunization 39/56 (69.6 %) 330/564 (58.5 %) 1.63 (0.90–2.95) 0.108
 I believe the vaccines are useful 52/55 (94.5 %) 432/562 (76.9 %) 5.22 (1.60–16.98) 0.006
 I believe in alternative medicine 40/56 (71.4 %) 396/561 (70.6 %) 1.04 (0.57–1.91) 0.895
 I believe that natural methods are better than vaccination 23/55 (41.8 %) 379/562 (67.4 %) 0.35 (0.20–0.61) <0.001
 I am against vaccination due to my beliefs 6/54 (11.1 %) 111/563 (19.7 %) 0.51 (0.21–1.22) 0.130
Motivating factors
 I know the Ministry of Health recommendations about influenza vaccination 45/55 (81.8 %) 359/561 (64.0 %) 2.53 (1.25–5.13) 0.010
 I know the Ministry of Health recommendations about the age groups and chronic diseases which require influenza vaccination 44/55 (80.0 %) 318/564 (56.4 %) 3.09 (1.57–6.12) 0.001
 I have sufficient knowledge about influenza 47/55 (85.5 %) 408/561 (72.7 %) 2.2 (1.02–4.77) 0.045
 I get knowledge about influenza from reliable sources every year 43/56 (76.8 %) 310/561 (55.3 %) 2.68 (1.41–5.09) 0.003
 The Ministry of Health provides free vaccination for health professionals 41/55 (74.5 %) 310/561 (55.3 %) 2.37 (1.26–4.45) 0.007
Attitudes
 I feel that health professionals’ not spreading the disease to their patients important 53/57 (93.0 %) 480/562 (85.4 %) 2.26 (0.80–6.42) 0.125
 I believe that health professionals should be vaccinated for the continuity of health services 51/56 (91.1 %) 363/557 (65.2 %) 5.45 (2.14–13.88) <0.001
 Right of choice for vaccination should be preserved for health professionals 43/57 (75.4 %) 480/557 (86.2 %) 0.49 (0.26–0.94) 0.033
 Influenza vaccine should be mandatory for health professionals 36/56 (64.3 %) 193/557 (34.6 %) 3.39 (1.91–6.03) <0.001
Social effects
 My relatives believe that my vaccination is important 48/57 (84.2 %) 252/560 (45 %) 6.52 (3.14–13.54) <0.001
 My institute recommends my vaccination 46/57 (80.7 %) 284/560 (50.7 %) 4.06 (2.06–8.01) <0.001
 My colleagues believe that my vaccination is important 47/56 (83.9 %) 250/558 (44.8 %) 6.43 (3.09–13.38) <0.001
 The Ministry of Health recommends vaccination of health professionals 44/55 (80.0 %) 325/554 (58.7 %) 2.82 (1.43–5.57) 0.003
 The health authorities I respect recommend vaccination 46/55 (83.6 %) 292/553 (52.8 %) 4.57 (2.19–9.51) <0.001
Personal competence
 I would be vaccinated every year if I have enough time 48/53 (90.6 %) 194/373 (52.0 %) 8.86 (3.45–22.75) <0.001
 I would be vaccinated if someone reminds me 49/57 (86.0 %) 194/555 (35.0 %) 11.4 (5.29–24.55) <0.001
 I would be vaccinated every year if the vaccine is provided in my institute 50/55 (90.9 %) 208/557 (37.3 %) 16.78 (6.59–42.75) <0.001
 I would be vaccinated every year if I am rewarded 29/56 (51.8 %) 144/558 (25.8 %) 3.09 (1.77–5.39) <0.001
 I would be vaccinated every year if sufficient knowledge was given 47/56 (83.9 %) 253/555 (45.6 %) 6.23 (3.00–12.97) <0.001
  1. CI 95 % confidence interval of odds ratio, P p value for odds ratio
  2. aNumber of participants strongly agreeing or agreeing/total number of responses (percentage strongly agreeing or agreeing)