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Table 2 Initial antibiotics selected based on Gram stain results and on the Japanese guidelines

From: Gram-stain-based antimicrobial selection reduces cost and overuse compared with Japanese guidelines

  Gram stain Guidelines p value
Narrow spectrum N = 167 N = 44 0.0000*
 Ampicillin 12 0  
 Ampicillin/sulbactum 22 20  
 Cefazolin 48 17  
 Cefotiam 85 7  
Intermediate spectrum N = 40 N = 77 0.0000*
 Cefmeatazole 3 0  
 Flomoxef 0 23  
 Cefotaxime 10 2  
 Ceftriaxone 18 24  
 Ceftazidime 3 27  
 Aztreonam 1 0  
 Clindamycin 5 0  
 Ciprofloxacin 0 1  
Broad spectrum N = 10 N = 93 0.0000*
 Piperacillin/tazobactum 0 27  
 Cefepime 0 1  
 Imipenem/cilastatin 3 9  
 Meropenem 4 35  
 Doripenem 0 8  
 Biapenem 0 7  
 Vancomycin 3 6  
  1. *p < 0.05