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Table 2 Overall mean health and cost outcomes for the UK

From: Cost-effectiveness evaluation of quadrivalent influenza vaccines for seasonal influenza prevention: a dynamic modeling study of Canada and the United Kingdom

UK1
  TIV/LAIV QIV/QLAIV Difference (TIV/LAIV vs QIV/QLAIV) % Difference
Average influenza-related outcomes per season, n (95 % CI)
Cases 6,175,473 (5,348,157; 7,095,022) 6,086,718 (5,244,706; 6,981,581) −88,755 (−153,607; −46,761) −1.4 (−2.5; −0.8)
GP visits 1,477,243 (1,276,226; 1,698,398) 1,454,327 (1,249,078; 1,672,087) −22,917 (−39,758; −12,127) −1.6 (−2.7; −0.8)
ER visits 45,688 (39,471; 52,528) 44,979 (38,631; 51,714) −709 (−1,230; −375) −1.6 (−2.7; −0.8)
Hospitalizations 71,740 (62,217; 82,455) 70,690 (61,026; 81,103) −1,050 (−1,824; −553) −1.5 (−2.5; −0.8)
Deaths 5,366 (4,609; 6,207) 5,136 (4,372; 5,941) −230 (−424; −107) −4.3 (−7.5; −2.0)
Average costs per season, £ (95 % CI)
Vaccination £142,869,897 (142,132,194; 143,838,565) £173,690,646 (172,847,546; 174,801,973) £30,820,749 (30,714,458; 30,964,151)
GP visits £54,658,003 (47,220,348; 62,840,730) £53,810,083 (46,215,893; 61,867,225) -£847,920 (−1,471,032; −448,693)
ER visits £6,167,872 (5,328,571; 7,091,250) £6,072,188 (5,215,223; 6,981,395) -£95,683 (−165,998; −50,633)
Hospitalization £316,143,107 (273,230,094; 363,500,069) £310,054,168 (266,192,382; 356,545,209) -£6,088,939( −10,684,477; −3,156,736)
Total payer costs £519,838,878 (469,625,943; 576,456,567) £543,627,085 (491,853,288; 598,787,408) £23,788,206 (18,451,500; 27,182,411)
Total costs, 2014–24: 3.5 % discount, £ (95 % CI)
Vaccination £1,182,629,311 (1,176,522,193; 1,190,629,232) £1,438,387,119 (1,431,392,398; 1,447,571,973) £255,757,808 (254,873,033; 256,946,194)
GP visits £449,966,551 (390,148,320; 516,657,013) £442,621,741 (381,366,507; 508,088,148) -£7,344,811 (−12,406,117; −3,925,542)
ER visits £50,776,387 (44,026,211; 58,302,059) £49,947,563 (43,035,229; 57,335,107) -£828,824 (−1,399,966; −442,977)
Hospitalization £2,603,109,409 (2,257,958,720; 2,989,825,442) £2,550,795,544 (2,197,010,408; 2,929,281,052) -£52,313,865 (−89,406,033; −26,864,867)
Total payer costs £4,286,481,659 (3,871,840,486; 4,753,225,888) £4,481,751,967 (4,063,534,469; 4,933,835,213) £195,270,308 (152,116,034; 224,188,224)
QALYs lost, n (95 % CI)
Per season 138,681 (119,774; 159,443) 135,415 (116,128; 155,866) −3,266 (−5,749; −1,616)
Total 1,143,215 (990,661; 1,314,381) 1,115,337 (958,023; 1,283,316) −27,878 (−48,670; −13,753)
LYs lost, n (95 % CI)
Per season 67,761 (58,243; 78,145) 65,340 (55,700; 75,446) −2,421 (−4,407; −1,150)
Total 560,869 (482,171; 647,615) 540,396 (459,999; 623,573) −20,473 (−37,239; −9,741)
UK2
  TIV/LAIV QIV/QLAIV Difference (TIV/LAIV vs QIV/QLAIV) % Difference
Average influenza-related outcomes per season, n (95 % CI)
Cases 5,335,431 (4,663,367; 6,094,108) 5,237,644 (4,563,870; 5,976,162) −97,787 (−167,789; −53,233) −1.8 (−3.0; −1.0)
GP visits 1,279,954 (1,116,137; 1,463,587) 1,254,916 (1,091,268; 1,432,823) −25,038 (−42,527; −13,756) −2.0 (−3.2; −1.1)
ER visits 39,586 (34,520; 45,266) 38,812 (33,751; 44,314) −774 (−1,315; −425) −2.0 (−3.2; −1.1)
Hospitalizations 61,812 (54,111; 70,575) 60,658 (52,902; 69,153) −1,154 (−1,992; −626) −1.9 (−3.1; −1.1)
Deaths 4,772 (4,146; 5,483) 4,538 (3,921; 5,202) −234 (−410; −116) −4.9 (−8.3; −2.5)
Average costs per season, £ (95 % CI)
Vaccination £171,724,730 (170,737,027; 172,880,105) £202,522,845 (201,431,528; 203,801,765) £30,798,116 (30,696,168; 30,920,847)
GP visits £47,358,314 (41,297,066; 54,152,709) £46,431,902 (40,376,915; 53,014,460) -£926,412 (−1,573,508; −508,968)
ER visits £5,344,140 (4,660,159; 6,110,852) £5,239,599 (4,556,325; 5,982,406) -£104,541 (−177,562; −57,434)
Hospitalization £274,233,102 (239,080,248; 313,959,886) £267,724,197 (232,618,317; 305,657,406) -£6,508,906 (−11,183,958; −3,502,201)
Total payer costs £498,660,286 (457,399,436; 545,711,073) £521,918,543 (480,857,526; 567,317,462) £23,258,257 (17,987,595; 26,732,485)
Total costs, 2014–24, 3.5 % discount, £ (95 % CI)
Vaccination £1,421085,767 (1,412,898,941; 1,430,629,196) £1,676,655,043 (1,667,605,341; 1,687,226,238) £255,569,276 (254,720,544; 256,584,332)
GP visits £390,019,191 (338,972,997; 445,806,414) £382,011,087 (331,356,732; 436,393,837) -£8,008,104 (−13,328,069; −4,445,418)
ER visits £44,011,639 (38,251,341; 50,306,937) £43,107,966 (37,391,885; 49,244,777) -£903,673 (−1,504,003; −501,642)
Hospitalization £2,258,890,346 (1,965,081,255; 2,581,768,165) £2,203,039,151 (1,911,631,217; 2,513,877,596) -£55,851,195 (−94,174,503; 30,373,049)
Total payer costs £4,114,006,943 (3,771,593,455; 4,497,105,857) £4,304,813,247 (3,962,279,878; 4,678,534,060) £190,806,304 (147,019,450; 220,067,782)
QALYs lost, n (95 % CI)
Per season 121,040 (105,258; 138,570) 117,603 (102,122; 134,418) −3,437 (−5,970; −1,802)
Total 998,215 (867,812; 1,140,983) 968,900 (839,411; 1,106,335) −29,315 (−49,909; −15,593)
LYs lost, n (95 % CI)
Per season 59,931 (51,974; 68,794) 57,448 (49,677; 65,930) −2,484 (−4,309; −1,247)
Total 496,291 (429,909; 568,923) 475,295 (409,468; 545,073) −20,996 (−36,237; −10,647)
  1. Note: A negative value for the difference denotes outcomes prevented; GP, general practitioner; ER, emergency room; QALYs, quality-adjusted life years; LYs, life years