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Table 1 Overall mean health and cost outcomes for Canada

From: Cost-effectiveness evaluation of quadrivalent influenza vaccines for seasonal influenza prevention: a dynamic modeling study of Canada and the United Kingdom

  TIV QIV Difference (TIV vs. QIV) % Difference
Average influenza-related outcomes per season, n (95 % CI)
Cases 2,933,460 (2,532,276; 3,351,695) 2,797,922 (2,392,853; 3,199,681) −135,538 (−228,154; −76,677) −4.6 (−7.7; −2.7)
GP visits 1,066,568 (921,034; 1,218,892) 1,014,368 (868,298; 1,160,118) −52,200 (−88,460; −29,055) −4.9 (−8.2; −2.8)
ER visits 59,704 (51,257; 68,574) 56,309 (47,987; 64,721) −3,395 (−5,907; −1,731) −5.7 (−9.7; −3.0)
Hospitalizations 32,986 (28,319; 37,886) 31,110 (26,512; 35,757) −1,876 (−3,264; −956) −5.7 (−9.7; −3.0)
Deaths 4,836 (4,114; 5,606) 4,508 (3,811; 5,230) −328 (−584; −156) −6.8 (−11.9; −3.2)
Average costs per season, $ (95 % CI)
Vaccination $114,269,815 (113,818,022; 114,795,606) $153,621,770 (153,014,388; 154,328,631) $39,351,954 (39,196,367; 39,533,025)
GP visits $45,574,462 (39,355,763; 52,083,266) $43,343,948 (37,102,387; 49,571,823) -$2,230,514 (−3,779,889; −1,241,510)
ER visits $13,337,288 (11,450,298; 15,318,666) $12,578,851 (10,719,802; 14,457,926) -$758,437 (−1,319,645; −386,684)
Hospitalization $120,689,432 (103,441,040; 138,855,265) $113,695,532 (96,748,864; 130,839,986) -$6,993,900 (−12,204,664; −3,525,203)
Total payer costs $293,870,997 (268,805,179; 320,376,234) $323,240,101 (298,328,487; 348,108,942) $29,369,104 (22,016,160; 34,131,5416)
Total costs, 2014–24: 5 % discounted, $ (95 % CI)
Vaccination $868,017,693 (864,552,580; 872,000,633) $1,166,943,465 (1,162,285,045; 1,172,298,039) $298,925,772 (297,732,465; 300,297,407)
GP visits $347,201,538 (298,121,148; 398,164,181) $329,329,994 (280,856,904; 378,138,361) $-17,871,544 (−29,416,959; −9,870,111)
ER visits $101,255,332 (86,543,184; 116,554,469) $95,274,727 (80,828,208; 109,823,373) $-5,980,605 (−10,120,952; −3,025,115)
Hospitalization $915,691,926 (781,948,765; 1,054,610,228) $860,655,203 (728,830,865; 993,481,676) $-55,036,723 (−93,315,528; −27,516,515)
Total payer costs $2,232,166,489 (2,035,062,286; 2,436,875,507) $2,452,203,389 (2,261,195,912; 2,649,106,709) $220,036,899 (166,524,687; 257,670,736)
QALYs lost, n (95 % CI)
Per season 68,980 (59,036; 79,436) 64,930 (55,206; 74,837) −4,050 (−7,076; −2,033)
Total 522,596 (446,330; 601,554) 490,805 (414,820; 567,537) −31,791 (−54,079; −15,845)
LYs lost, n (95 % CI)
Per season 45,675 (38,909; 52,852) 42,732 (36,152; 49,573) −2,944 (−5,215; −1,417)
Total 344,912 (293,245; 398,169) 322,013 (270,885; 374,069) −22,899 (−39,878; −10,871)
  1. Note: A negative value for the difference denotes outcomes prevented; GP, general practitioner; ER, emergency room; QALYs, quality-adjusted life years; LYs, life years