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Table 4 Risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among participating prison inmates according to HIV status (n = 294)

From: Determining intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in inmates from Kajang Prison, Selangor, Malaysia for improved prison management

Characteristics Overall (n = 294) HIV positive (n = 131) HIV negative (n = 163)
  No. infected (%) OR (95 % CI) p No. infected (%) ORa (95 % CI) p No. infected (%) OR (95 % CI) p
Age group (years)          
 ≥40 31 (27.7) 1.10 (0.65-1.87) 0.727 16 (27.1) 0.97 (0.45-2.09) 0.933 15 (28.3) 1.21 (0.58-2.54) 0.607
 <40 47 (25.8) 1   20 (27.8) 1b   27 (24.5) 1  
Education attainment          
 Primary school and below 20 (24.4) 0.86 (0.48-1.54) 0.605 7 (20.0) 0.58 (0.23-1.47) 0.247 13 (27.7) 1.15 (0.53-2.47) 0.725
 Secondary school and below 58 (27.4) 1   29 (30.2) 1   29 (25.0) 1  
Tuberculosis          
 Yes 8 (42.1) 2.13 (0.82-5.51) 0.112 8 (44.4) 2.43 (0.87-6.76) 0.094e 0 NAf 0.535e
 No 70 (25.5) 1   28 (24.8) 1   42 (25.9)   
Hepatitis B or C          
 Yes 4 (18.2) 0.60 (0.20-1.82) 0.356 2 (11.1) 0.29 (0.06-1.33) 0.153e 2 (50.0) 2.98 (0.41-21.82) 0.274e
 No 74 (27.2) 1   34 (30.1) 1   40 (25.2) 1  
CD4 countc (cells/mm3)          
 ≤200     8 (33.3) 1.32 (0.48-3.58) 0.590    
 >200     19 (27.5) 1     
Duration of having HIV (years)          
 ≤10     26 (29.9) 1.43 (0.63-3.36) 0.386    
 >10     10 (22.7) 1     
HAARTd          
 No     32 (26.9) 0.74 (0.21-2.61) 0.736e    
 Yes     4 (33.3) 1     
  1. aOR Odd ratio
  2. bReference group marked as OR = 1
  3. cn = 93
  4. dHAART Highly active antiretroviral therapy
  5. eFisher’s exact value
  6. fNA Not available