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Table 2 Demographic and clinical information of participating prison inmates according to HIV status

From: Determining intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in inmates from Kajang Prison, Selangor, Malaysia for improved prison management

Characteristics Overall(n = 294) HIV positive (n = 131; 44.6 %) HIV negative (n = 163; 55.4 %)
  No. % No. % No. %
Age group (years)
 20-29 67 22.8 17 13.0 50 30.7
 30-39 115 39.1 55 42.0 60 36.8
 40-49 80 27.2 49 37.4 31 19.0
 50-59 26 8.8 8 6.1 18 11.0
 60-69 6 2.0 2 1.5 4 2.5
Ethnicity
 Malay 171 58.2 84 64.1 87 53.4
 Chinese 44 15.0 14 10.7 30 18.4
 Indian 62 21.1 26 19.8 36 22.1
 Sabah Bumiputera 8 2.7 1 0.8 7 4.3
 Sarawak Bumiputera 2 0.7 1 0.8 1 0.6
 Immigrants 7 2.4 5 3.8 2 1.2
Duration in prison (months)
 0-3 161 54.8 71 54.2 90 55.2
 4-6 59 20.1 12 9.2 47 28.8
 7-9 26 8.8 5 3.8 21 12.9
 10-12 7 2.8 4 3.1 3 1.8
 >12 41 13.9 39 29.8 2 1.2
Education attainment
 No formal education 10 3.4 8 6.1 2 1.2
 Primary school 72 24.5 27 20.6 45 27.6
 Secondary school 202 68.7 94 71.8 108 66.3
 Tertiary school 10 3.4 2 1.5 8 4.9
Symptoms related to GITa infection
 Diarrhoea 36 12.2 21 16.0 15 9.2
 Nausea and vomiting 16 5.4 12 9.2 4 2.5
 Abdominal pain 45 15.3 28 21.4 17 10.4
 Dysentery 27 9.2 22 16.8 5 3.1
 Feeling tired easily 111 37.8 69 52.7 42 25.8
 Fever 64 21.8 35 26.7 29 17.8
 Loss of appetite 29 9.9 19 14.5 10 6.1
 Loss of weight 41 13.9 17 13.0 24 14.7
Other diseases present
 Tuberculosis 19 6.5 18 13.7 1 0.6
 Hepatitis B or C 22 7.5 18 13.7 4 2.5
 Asthma 13 4.4 8 6.1 5 3.1
 Hypertension 3 1.0 0 0 3 1.8
 Diabetes 11 3.7 1 0.8 10 6.1
 Schizophrenia 6 2.0 1 0.8 5 3.1
Mode of HIV transmission
 IVDUb    86 65.6   
 Sexual transmission    11 8.4   
 Both    24 18.3   
 Unknown    10 7.6   
Duration of having HIV (years)
 0-5    55 42.0   
 6-10    32 24.4   
 11-15    28 21.4   
 16-20    15 11.5   
 >21    1 0.8   
HAARTc
 Yes    55 42.0   
 No    32 24.4   
CD4 count (cells/mm3)
 <200    24 18.3   
 >200    69 52.7   
  1. aGIT Gastrointestinal tract
  2. bIVDU Intravenous drug user
  3. cHAART Highly active antiretroviral therapy