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Table 2 Mutations in QRDR of GyrA and ParC observed in 35 nalidixic acid- and/or ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Typhi isolated between 2002 and 2013 and corresponding zone diameters obtained by the disk diffusion test for ciprofloxacin

From: Antimicrobial susceptibility of travel-related Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates detected in Switzerland (2002–2013) and molecular characterization of quinolone resistant isolates

  Mutation    
No. of isolates (%) GyrA ParC No. of CIP resistant isolates (zone diameters [mm])a Years of isolation Identified associated country (no. of isolates)
8 (22.9) Ser83 → Tyr   4 (20) 2002–2009 India (2), Bangladesh (1)
18 (51.4) Ser83 → Phe   5 (19–21) 2003–2011 India (2), Pakistan (3), Bangladesh (1), Cambodia (1)
1 (2.9) Ser83 → Phe Glu84 → Gly 1 (14) 2006 India (1)
1 (2.9) Ser83 → Phe Glu84 → Lys 0 (21) 2008 India (1)
7 (20) Ser83 → Phe / Asp87 → Asn Ser80 → Ile 7 (6–11) 2010–2013 India (2), Nepal (1)
  1. Abbreviation: CIP, ciprofloxacin
  2. aBreakpoints for ciprofloxacin according to CLSI guidelines (16): susceptible, ≥30 mm; intermediate, 21–30 mm; resistant, ≤20 mm