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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of incident CDI, cases and matched controls

From: Clostridium difficile infection among hospitalized HIV-infected individuals: epidemiology and risk factors: results from a case-control study (2002-2013)

Characteristic Categories Cases (N = 79) Controls (N = 158) Total (N = 237) Unadjusted comparison P value
Age, mean (years)   45,9 ± 9,3 45,4 ± 8,8 45,5 ± 8,9 MD – 0,6 (±1,2) 0,64
Gender, N (%) M 56 (70,1) 116 (73,4) 172 (72,6)   
  F 23 (29,1) 42 (26,6) 65 (27,4)   
Hospitalization (days)^   33,5 ± 26,6 14,2 ± 12,2 20,6 ± 20,3   
Antiretroviral Treatment   55 (69,6) 96 (60,8) 151 (63,7) OR 1,5 (0,8 – 2,8) 0,20
Chronic HCV   39 (49,4) 67 (42,4) 106 (44,7) OR 1,3 (0,7 – 2,4) 0,31
Acid suppressants   36 (45,6) 51 (32,3) 87 (36,7) OR 1,8 (1,0 – 3,2) 0,04*
Antineoplastic chemotherapy   9 (11,4) 11 (7,0) 20 (8,4) OR 1,7 (0,6 – 4,8) 0,25
Previous hospitalization §   45 (57,0) 55 (34,8) 100 (42,2) OR 2,5 (1,4 – 4,5) 0,01*
Antibiotic exposure   71 123 194 OR 2,5 (1,1 – 6,6) 0,02*
Death during hospitalization   11 (13,9) 10 (6,3) 21 (8,9)   
Methadone therapy   17 (21,5) 37 (23,4) 54 (22,8) OR 0,9 (0,4 – 1,8) 0,74
CD4 on admission^   188 ± 237 262 ± 259 238 ± 254 MD 74,3 (±34,8) 0,03*
Charlson score^   6,8 ± 3,4 5,7 ± 3,7 6,1 ± 3,6 MD -1,1 (±0,5) 0,027*
HIV RNA, median   20.610 2.214 3.601 MD -15.935 (±33.975) 0,640
Serum Creatinine on admission (mg/dl)^   1,3 ± 1,8 0,9 ± 0,7 1,1 ± 1,2 MD 1,1 (±0,1) 0,036*
Serum Albumin on admission (g/dl)^   3,0 ± 0,7 3,4 ± 0,7 3,2 ± 0,7 MD 0,4 (±0,1) <0,001*
Gammaglobulins on admission (g/dl)^   1,6 ± 0,7 1,9 ± 1,0 1,8 ± 0,9 MD 0,2 (±0,1) 0,05*
  1. Extreme values (outliers: 2 upper and 2 lower) were excluded; there are no missing data; ^: mean; §: 8 weeks before; *: P value ≤ 0,05; Antibiotic exposure was evaluated until the development of diarrhea among cases and until the discharge for controls; MD: mean difference and standard deviation; OR: Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals; P: prophylaxis; PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia; TMP-SMX: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol.
  2. Univariate analysis for factors associated with CDI in HIV-infected hospitalized individuals