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Table 1 Antibiotics taken before and during hospital stay, cases and controls

From: Clostridium difficile infection among hospitalized HIV-infected individuals: epidemiology and risk factors: results from a case-control study (2002-2013)

Antibiotics before hospital stay Cases (%) (n = 79) Controls (%) (N = 158) OR (95% CI) p
Fluoroquinolones 11 (14) 7 (4) 3.5 (1.2 – 11.0) 0.009*
3 rd /4 th gen. Cephalosporins 6 (7) 12 (8) 1 (0.3 – 3.0) 1
Carbapenems 1 (1) 2 (1) 1 (0.0 – 19.5) 1
Penicillins 4 (5) 12 (8) 0.6 (0.1 – 2.24) 0.464
Rifamycins 8 (10) 6 (4) 2.9 (0.8 – 10.3) 0.05*
Clindamycin 0 (0) 0 (0) \ \
Antibiotics during hospital stay     
Fluoroquinolones 28 (35) 29 (18) 2.4 (1.3 – 4.7) 0.004*
3 rd /4 th gen. Cephalosporins 25 (32) 53 (34) 0.9 (0.5 – 1.7) 0.77
Carbapenems 18 (23) 9 (6) 4.9 (1.9 – 13.0) 0.0001*
Penicillins 15 (19) 27 (17) 1.1 (0.5 – 2.4) 0.718
Rifamycins 11 (14) 8 (5) 3.0 (1.1 – 9.1) 0.18
Clindamycin 3 (4) 1 (1) 6.2 (0.5 – 327.3) 0.075
  1. *p ≤ 0.05.