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Table 2 Clinical variables of interest of the case group and control patients

From: Risk factors for bloodstream infection in patients at a Brazilian hemodialysis center: a case–control study

  Case (n = 81) Control (n = 81) p-value
Comorbidities     
Hypertension 71(87.6) 59 (72.8) 0.018
Cardiovascular diseases 17 (20.9) 12 (14.8) 0.306
Diabetes mellitus 26 (32.0) 26(32.0) 1.000
Others*   27 (33.3) 22 (27.2) 0.421
Body mass index, Kg/m2 24 ± 4.3 24 ± 3.9 0.945
Previous treatments 56 (69.1) 47 (58.0) 0.141
Type of previous treatments    
Conservative   36 (64.3) 30 (37.0) 0.337
Peritoneal dialysis 19 (33.9) 9 (11.1) 0.038
Hemodialysis   17 (30.4) 9 (11.1) 0.087
Transplant   15 (26.8) 8 (9,9) 0.115
Duration of hemodialysis treatment, months 29 ± 39.2 36 ± 42.1 0.276
Type of current venous access    
AVF**   25 (30.9) 64 (79.0) <0.001
Tunneled hemodialysis CVC*** 52 (64.2) 13 (16.0)  
Non-tunneled hemodialysis CVC 4 (4.9) 1 (1.2)  
PTFE Graft**** 0 (-) 3 (3.7)  
  Location of current venous access    
  Upper arm 24 (29.6) 67 (82.7)  
  Jugular vein 50 (61.7) 13 (16.0)  
  Subclavian vein 7 (8.6) 0 (-)  
  Femoral vein 0 (-) 1 (1.2)  
  Duration of current venous access    
  0–30   17 (21,0) 3 (3.7) <0.001
  30–180 days 27 (33.3) 8 (9.9)  
  >180 days 37 (45.7) 70 (86.4)  
Previous venous access (6 months) 26 (32.1) 11 (13.6) 0.005
Number of previous accesses 1.2 ± 0.41 1.3 ± 0.46 0.744
  Type of previous venous access    
  AVF   7 (8.6) 3 (3.7) 0.192
  Tunneled hemodialysis CVC 14 (17.3) 5 (6.2) 0.028
  Non-tunneled hemodialysis CVC 5 (6.2) 6 (7.4) 0.755
  PTEF Graft 5 (6.2) 1 (1.2) 0.210
   Location of tunneled hemodialysis CVC
   Jugular vein   13 (16.0) 3 (3.7)  
   Subclavian vein   0 (-) 1 (1.2)  
   Location of non-tunneled hemodialysis CVC
   Jugular vein   4 (4.9) 6 (7.4)  
   Subclavian vein   1 (1.2) 0  
   Duration of previous venous access
   AVF     
   0–30   0 1 (1.2)  
   30–180 days   4 (4.9) 0 (-)  
   >180 days   3 (3.7) 2 (2.5)  
   Tunneled hemodialysis CVC
   0–30   4 (4.9) 0 (-) 0.034
   30–180 days   6 (7.4) 5 (6.2)  
   >180 days   4 (4.9) 0 (-)  
   Non-tunneled hemodialysis CVC
   0–30   1 (1.2) 6 (7.4)  
   30–180 days   3 (3.7) 0  
   >180 days   1 (1.2) 0  
   PTFE Graft**     
   0–30   0 (-) 0 (-)  
   30–180 days   1 (1.2) 0 (-)  
   >180 days   4 (4.9) 1 (1.2)  
Transfusions   11 (13.6) 7 (8.6) 0.317
Number of transfusions 1.9 ± 2.7 1 (-) 0.246
Hospitalizations due to infection 21 (25.9)   
Length of hospital stay 16.9 ± 16.4   
Previous use of antimicrobials 28 (34.6) 14 (17.3) 0.012
Previous hospitalizations 19 (23.5) 4 (4.9) <0.001
Number of previous hospitalizations 1.5 ± 1.2 1(-) 0.259
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD or n (%). *hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, neoplasm and systemic lupus erythematosus; **AVF: arteriovenous fistula; ***CVC: central venous catheter; ****PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene.