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Figure 2 | BMC Infectious Diseases

Figure 2

From: Mass campaigns with antimalarial drugs: a modelling comparison of artemether-lumefantrine and DHA-piperaquine with and without primaquine as tools for malaria control and elimination

Figure 2

Parasite killing rates of antimalarial drugs are calibrated to clearance time, prevalence, and infectivity. (A) Asexual parasite clearance time is within 3 days post-treatment for AL (red) and DP (blue) in both naive (solid bar) and semi-immune (hashed bar) populations. Black bars: 95% confidence interval. (B) AL (red) and DP (blue) pharmacodynamics are calibrated in a semi-immune population to <3% recrudescence rate (solid lines) at day 42 post-treatment and 50% and 20% reinfection rate (dashed lines) at day 42 post-treatment with a background EIR of 3/month. Shaded areas: 95% confidence interval. (C) Fraction of patients clear of parasites at day 42 post-treatment is dependent on patient age for DP-treated population (blue) but not AL-treated population (red). Young children are more likely to experience recrudescence (solid line) and reinfection (dashed line) than older patients when treated with DP. Shaded areas: 95% confidence interval. (D) Gametocyte clearance time for AL-treated patients of all ages is calibrated to 7–10 days (red lines) post-treatment. Addition of single-dose PQ at 0.75 mg/kg reduces gametocyte clearance time to < 7 days. Shaded areas: 95% confidence interval. (E) Mean fraction of mosquitoes infected on day 2 post-treatment with AL, PQ, AL + PQ, or no drug in a semi-immune population challenged with an infectious bite 25 days prior to treatment. Primaquine was given with a single dose at 0.065, 0.10, 0.25, 0.40, and 0.75 mg/kg. Bars: 95% confidence interval (smaller than dot radius for PQ alone and AL + PQ).

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