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Table 2 Demographic characteristic of 954 culture-positive patients with identified strain

From: Investigation of the high rates of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia reveals no single driving factor and minimal evidence for zoonotic transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection

   PTB   TBLN   Crude OR Adjusted OR
   n % n % 95% CI 95% CI
Age a ≤20 years 128 51.6 120 48.4 1 1
  >20 - ≤45 years 355 70.6 148 29.4 0.4 (0.3-06.)*** 0.5 (0.4-0.8)**
  >45 years 87 80.6 21 19.4 0.3 (0.2-0.4)*** 0.3 (0.2-0.6)***
Sex b Male 331 70.6 138 29.4   
  Female 246 59.6 167 40.4 1.6 (1.2-2.2)*** 1.6 (1.1-2.3)*
Education Illiterate 311 67.2 152 32.8 1 1
  Primary 158 58.5 112 41.5 1.5 (1.1-2.0)* 0.7 (0.4-1.1)
  Secondary 86 71.7 34 28.3 0.8 (0.5-1.3) 0.3 (0.2-0.6)***
  Higher degree 22 81.5 5 18.5 0.5 (0.2-1.3) 0.2 (0.1-0.7)**
Previous TB contact No 331 59.8 223 40.2   
  Yes 154 66.7 77 33.3 0.7 (0.5-1.0) 0.8 (0.5-1.3)
Intake of raw milk No 221 66.4 112 33.6   
  Yes 353 64.6 193 35.4 1.1 (0.8-1.4) 1.9 (1.2-2.8)**
Living with animals in same household No 289 70.2 123 29.8   
  Yes 273 60.7 177 39.3 1.5 (1.1-2.0)** 1.7 (1.1-2.6)*
Regular and direct contact with live animals No 214 72.0 83 28.0   
  Yes 327 64.9 177 35.1 1.4 (1.0-1.9)* 3.0 (1.9-4.5)***
BCG vaccination No 329 82.5 70 17.5   
  Yes 89 77.4 26 22.6 1.4 (0.8-2.3) 1.6 (0.8-3.3)
  1. aadjusted for sex and site alone; badjusted for age and site alone; *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01; ***p ≤ 0.001.