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Table 3 Antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from invasive neonatal infections in developing countries (2000-May 2014)

From: Burden of bacterial resistance among neonatal infections in low income countries: how convincing is the epidemiological evidence?

Study, year Location, setting Pathogen Resistant% (95% CI)
    Penicillin/ampicillin Gentamicin 3rd generation cephalosporins % ESBL*
Mugalu et al. [15] Uganda, urban 17 E. coli, 100§ 29 (7–51) 6 (0–17) --
2002   7 Group B Streptococcus 14 (0–40) 57 (20–94) -- NA
Gray et al. [29] Malawi, urban 57 Group B Streptococcus 0§ -- 0§ NA
2004-2005       
Shitaye et al. [19] Ethiopia, urban 30 S. aureus 67% (50–84) resistance to meticillin NA
2006-2007      
Talbert et al. [24] Kenya, rural 48 Acinetobacter spp., || 56 (42–70) 27 (14–39) 35 (22–48) --
2001-2009   49 K. pneumoniae 96 (91–100) 49 (35–63) 43 (29–57) --
   39 S. pyogenes 0§ -- -- --
   41 E. coli 78 (65–91) 10 (1–19) 17 (5–29) --
   55 S. aureus 0% resistance to meticillin§ NA
Mhada et al. Tanzania, urban 22 Klebsiella spp. || 100§ 77 (57–90) 18 (7–39) --
2009-2010   41 E. coli 93 (69–99) 43 (21-67 14 (4–40) --
Kruse et al. [30] Vietnam, urban 78 Klebsiella spp. ,|| 100§ 85 (75–91) 86 (76–92), 71 (60–79) --
2009-2010   58 Acinetobacter spp. ,|| 85 (73–92) 50 (38–62) 82 (71–80), 71 (58–81) --
   21 E. coli 86 (65–95) 57 (37–76) 58 (37–76), 42 (24–63) --
   16 Enterobacter spp. ,|| 93 (72–99) 62 (39–82) 62 (39–82), 50 (28–72) --
   6 Pseudomonas spp. ,|| 100§ 48 (19–81) 83 (44–97) ,33 (10–70) --
   11 S. Aureus 55% (28–79) resistance to meticillin  
Jain et al. [26] India, urban 86 Klebsiella spp. || 100§ 89 (82–96) 63 (53–73), 49 (38–60) 87 (80–94)
2001-2002   80 Enterobacter spp. || 100§ 93 (87–99) 64 (53–75), 54 (43–65) 73 (63–83)
   49 E. coli 96 (91–100) 90 (72–98) 65 (52–78), 41 (27–55) 65 (52–78)
Zakariya et al. [25] India, urban 33 K. pneumoniae -- 100§ 97(85–99), 97(85–99) 32 (20–50)
2004-2006       
Mir et al. [28] Pakistan, urban 52 Pseudomonas spp. ,|| -- 0§ -- --
2004-2007   12 Klebsiella spp,|| -- 8 (0–23) 8 (0–23) --
   9 E. coli -- 0§ 11 (0–31) --
   304 S. aureus 4% (2–6) resistance to meticillin  
Gyawali et al. [12] Nepal, urban 82 Enterobacteriacea ? 94 (87–97) 70 (59–78) 83 (73–90), 79 (69–87), 87 (78–92) --
2009-2010   21 Pseudomonas spp. || -- 37 (21–59) 47 (28–68), 71 (50–86), 67 (45–82) --
   30 Acinetobacer spp. || -- 56 (39–73) 53 (36–70), 65 (46–78), 73 (56–86) --
Shresta et al. [20] Nepal, urban 8 K. pneumoniae 38 (14–69) 0§ -- --
2011-2012       
Macharashvili et al. [14] Georgia, urban 45 Klebsiella spp. ,, || 98 (94–100) 11 (2–20) 16 (5–27), 18 (7–29) --
2003-2004   11 E. coli, 55 (26–84) 18 (0–41) 9 (0–26), 9 (0–26) --
   15 S. aureus 40% (15–65) resistance to meticillin  
  1. *Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.
  2. Results were presented for sensitivity, resistance calculated as 100 minus% sensitive.
  3. Penicillin results based on amoxicillin.
  4. §Calculation of a CI was impossible.
  5. ||Pathogens marked spp. means no further characterization was presented.
  6. Multiple 3GCs were tested.