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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Prevalence of early-onset neonatal infection among newborns of mothers with bacterial infection or colonization: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  Total (all studies) Maternal infections and neonatal infections Maternal colonization and neonatal infections Maternal colonization and neonatal colonization Maternal risk factors and neonatal infections
Total number of studies (qualitative and meta-analysis)* 122 37 37 39 27
Number of studies in the meta-analysis* 107 32 36 38 27
Study sample size, median (25th, 75th percentile) 337 (IQR 144-1413) 146 (IQR 53-524) 937 (IQR 201-2040) 800 (IQR 317-1457) 225 (IQR 94-1280)
Study type
Cohort (including RCTs) 117 (95.9%) 34 (91.9%) 36 (97.3%) 39 (100%) 26 (96.3%)
Nested case-control 2 (1.6%) 1 (2.7%) 1 (2.7%) -- 1 (3.7%)
Population surveillance 3 (2.5%) 2 (5.4%) -- -- --
Location
Health facility 94 (77.0%) 28 (75.7%) 28 (75.7%) 31 (79.5%) 21 (77.8%)
Multi-center 24 (19.7%) 7 (18.9%) 7 (18.9%) 7 (18.0%) 6 (22.2%)
Unknown or not clear 4 (3.3%) 2 (5.4%) 2 (5.4%) 1 (2.6%) --
Urban or rural
Urban or periurban 99 (81.2%) 30 (81.1%) 28 (75.7%) 33 (84.6%) 22 (81.5%)
Mixed 2 (1.6%) 1 (2.7%) -- -- --
Unknown or not clear 21 (17.2%) 6 (16.2%) 9 (24.3%) 6 (15.4%) 5 (18.5%)
Timing of early-onset sepsis
First seven days of life 75 (61.5%) 18 (48.6%) 24 (64.9%) 31 (79.5%) 15 (55.6%)
Not reported or unclear 47 (38.5%) 19 (51.4%) 13 (35.1%) 8 (20.5%) 12 (44.4)
Antibiotic use
No intrapartum antibiotic use 28 (23.0%) 4 (10.8%) 10 (27.0%) 10 (25.6%) 9 (33.3%)
Some intrapartum antibiotic use 51 (41.8%) 21 (56.8%) 17 (46.0%) 13 (33.3%) 11 (40.7%)
Unknown or not clear 43 (35.2%) 12 (32.4%) 10 (27.0%) 16 (41.0%) 7 (25.9%)
High risk population
Preterm 8 (6.6%) 7 (18.9%) -- -- 3 (11.1%)
PROM 5 (4.1%) 2 (5.4%) 1 (2.7%) -- 4 (14.8%)
PPROM 17 (13.9%) 7 (18.9%) 2 (5.4%) -- 8 (29.6%)
Prolonged rupture of membranes 1 (0.8%) -- -- -- 1 (3.7%)
Preterm or PROM 5 (4.1%) 2 (5.4%) 2 (5.4%) 1 (2.6%) 3 (11.1%)
Preterm or PPROM 2 (1.6%) -- -- -- 2 (7.4%)
None, all women included 80 (65.6%) 17 (45.0%) 31 (83.8%) 36 (92.3%) 6 (22.2%)
Other or unclear 4 (3.3%) 2 (5.4%) 1 (2.7%) 2 (5.1%) --
WHO Region
Africa 3 (2.5%) -- -- 2 (5.1%) 1 (3.7%)
Americans 52 (42.6%) 23 (62.2%) 16 (43.2%) 6 (15.4%) 16 (59.3%)
Eastern Mediterranean 3 (2.5%) -- 1 (2.7%) 3 (7.7%) --
Europe 49 (40.2%) 8 (21.6%) 11 (29.7%) 23 (59.0%) 8 (29.6%)
Southeast Asia 5 (4.1%) (5.4%) 3 (8.1%) 2 (5.1%) 1 (3.7%)
Western Pacific 10 (8.2%) 4 (10.8%) 6 (16.2%) 3 (7.7%) 1 (3.7%)
Neonatal mortality range
Very low mortality <5 per 1000 live births 104 (85.2%) 34 (91.9%) 32 (86.5%) 28 (71.8%) 23 (85.2%)
Low mortality 5-14 8 (6.6%) 1 (2.7%) -- 6 (15.4%) 2 (7.4%)
High mortality 15-27 3 (2.5%) -- 2 (5.4%) 2 (5.1%) --
Very high mortality >27 7 (5.7%) 2 (5.4%) 3 (8.1%) 3 (7.7%) 2 (7.4%)
Income range
High income (≥12276) per capita in USD 104 (85.3%) 34 (91.9%) 32 (86.5%) 29 (74.4%) 22 (81.5%)
Upper middle income (3976-12275) 11 (9.0%) 1 (2.7%) 1 (2.7%) 7 (18.0%) 3 (11.1%)
Lower middle income (1006-3975) 6 (4.9%) 2 (5.4%) 4 (10.8%) 3 (7.7%) 1 (3.7%)
Low income (≤1005) 1 (0.8%) -- -- -- 1 (3.7%)
  1. *Studies could be included in more than one meta-analysis (Maternal infections and neonatal infections, Maternal colonization and neonatal infections, Maternal colonization and neonatal colonization, and Maternal risk factors and neonatal infections).